Because the circumference of coily hair is smaller than that of curly hair, natural scalp oils take longer to travel down the hair shaft, leaving coils more prone to dryness and breakage. Vernon employs a "3D" approach when drying the hair, which means every part of the hair (brace yourself for a lot of Beyoncé-style hair flips) is being diffused and scrunched in different sections. It's two steps in one. Kinky curly hair is considered the most difficult to manage and maintain hair. The best way to avoid this is by alternating between sections, holding the diffuser upon each for no more than 40-50 seconds. In fact, from now on I'm never leaving the house with out as it includes a wide tooth section for detangling; medium-sized tooth for parting/smooth; and a pick handle for teasing/scribbling. 5. Healthline Media does not provide medical advice, diagnosis, or treatment. If your curls are very dry, consider using a hair mask once or twice a week. 3. As a curly girl, I was embarrassingly late to the co-wash party. A big part of curly hair care is learning to dry it gently and minimally. Wavy hair is a beautiful hair type to have. This may help strengthen damaged hair strands and make your hair easier to style in the morning. The extra moisture is *especially* welcome if you're a hair mask delinquent like me. 2. The less you pull on your hair or cause it unnecessary stress, the more protected it will be against breakage. Curly Hair Care: Or How Guys Should Start Taking Care of Their Manes. Curly hair is different from other hair textures. Believe it or not, hair thickness plays a huge part in how you care for your curls. If you have curly hair, sleeping on your side or on your stomach is likely going to be best for maintaining curl health. If you think about it, gray hair is a part of the curly hair journey and learning to care for it is just a new chapter. He just wanted them to live their best life. On other days, use a mild shampoo to avoid stripping the hair of its natural oils. Because curls in curly hair are constantly moving, hair is likely to have tiny splits in it. It's a good idea to baby your hair slightly during the shampooing process if you have curly hair. Wavy to curly hair types are also more prone to frizz. Rinsing your hair with cool water also helps seal the hair cuticle. You may be able to find more information about this and similar content at piano.io, Hot Tools Are No Match for Heat Protectant Sprays, Editor's Review: Hanacure, the Cult K-Beauty Mask, The 18 Best Products to Up Your Bubble Bath Game, The All-Time Best K-Beauty Masks for Dewy Skin, Beauty Obsessives Will Love These New Products, Our Favorite Body Oils for Skin That Glows. Not all curls are made the same, and this is especially true when it comes to texture. Curly hair should be treated like dry skin so look out for products that moisturise and condition without... Water, not Oil. Straight hair wicks the sebum down the shaft easily, so that the whole length of the shaft is moisturized. Curly Haircuts. Here are some easy care tips for curly hair in a toddler: 1. Especially if you don't have curly hair yourself, knowing how to care for your little one's curly locks can be daunting. Then it can be quite difficult to get volume. ... co-founder of IGK Hair Care. Don't over-shampoo Some of our go-tos include the NutriCurls Curlixir Defining Balm for soft, bounce-boosting hold and intense nourishment. Keeping your coils well … Always follow shampooing with a conditioner to help lock in moisture. Don’t use a towel or hair dryer to dry curly hair – it damages it and causes frizz. HAIR CARE TIPS FOR CURLY HAIR: Never brush curly hair. A wide-tooth comb will pull less on your hair. Embrace the silver crown (when you’re ready) and show the world that you lived and experienced amazing things! Don’t use a towel or hair dryer to dry curly hair – it damages it and causes frizz. Co-wash your hair. Exploring new ways to love and live with your new shade could make for an exciting and freeing experience. swap out your shampoo completely and just use conditioner. You’ll be an expert on how to look after curly hair! Once you master these curly hair tips , however, you’ll be on your way to a healthier mane of beautiful curls. When shampooing, concentrate on rubbing and cleansing your scalp properly with your fingertips. Curly Hair Care. If you're going to spend time diffusing the curls, you'll want the gorgeous results to last for days on days on days. Apply products to your hands like hand cream. To avoid overheating the curls, you should keep both the heat and power on medium. Don't overdry the curls! ... co-founder of IGK Hair Care. In other words, don't just pin the diffuser to your head and blast it with heat. This will keep your curls neat and reduce friction while you sleep. Certain curl types may get frizzy from regular shampooing. That being said, shampooing curly hair is still necessary for healthy hair growth, as it gets rid of all the buildup from oils, dirt, and dust (umm we don't want that, no thanks!). Keep your curls in tact over night. Like a DJ with a needle and a vinyl record, you should use a pick to "scribble," which is teasing across the roots in a zig-zag formation for volume that goes up and out. Scribble your roots for volume. In other words, it ensures an even distribution of product when coating your strands. Curly hair naturally leans on the dry and brittle side, so brushing your hair when it’s dry will only separate the curls and cause it to look ‘frizzy’. 4. hitting all the spots that you ain't even know was there, How to Deal with the Texture Struggles of Coloring Curly Hair, The Game-Changing Shampoo Trick Kim Kardashian's Hairstylist Swears By, 5 Tricks for Perfecting Cool-Girl Bedhead from Harry Styles' Hairstylist, 15 Instagram Stars Every Curly Girl Should Follow. These masks are meant to be put on the hair overnight and then washed out in the morning. The more gentle and patient you are, the better experience it's going to be. Because of the shape of the strands, the distribution of sebum (natural oils) isn’t even. The TIGI Bed Head Calma Sutra Cleansing Conditioner. Understanding the nature of fine curls and how to care for those curls is critical to beautiful curls. The first thing is to remember that moisture is a friend of curly hair. Instead, you should be embracing the va-va-voom of your texture by parting it only halfway down your head, which instantly adds volume to the back sections of your roots and is flattering to the face. Vernon explained this concept to me like this: "With curly hair, it's like you're at a party and you never want to be standing around while people dance. 7. Studies have shown that conditioner's impact your hair more than shampoos do. Waves can support a variety of looks, from carefree and beachy to sleek and classy. There is a big difference between straight hair and curly hair because curly hair will take a different shape when dry, while straight hair will be similar from wet to dry. Once you know your hair type and moisture level, you can treat dry hair at home. Marie Claire participates in various affiliate marketing programs, which means we may get paid commissions on editorially chosen products purchased through our links to retailer sites. It’s best paired with thick, curly hair, but is excellent for providing curl control. Q: Share how you got started in the hair industry.. A: After high school all of my friends were going to college. Some curls are also much finer than their counter parts. One of the most useful oils in your hair care routine is jojoba oil. This is because curly hair tends to be drier and finer than straight hair, making it more brittle. Unlike straight hair, curly hair tends to lack moisture and dry out easily, making it more difficult to care for. Here are the tips on how to take care of curly hair for guys. Consider using a hair mask, essential oil, or leave-in conditioner before bed to help tame your curls and add moisture as you sleep. Wrapping your head in a bonnet or headscarf can also help protect your curls as you sleep. 3. The trick is to experiment and take a prescriptive approach to cleansing curls, assessing the needs of the hair before you reach for the shampoo bottle. This is because curly hair tends to be drier and finer than straight hair, making it more brittle. Look for a shampoo and conditioner specifically designed for curly hair. The best way to keep 'em in tact is by "pineappling" your hair on top of your head and twisting it into an old, soft cotton T-shirt. In this article, we have listed all the tips and tricks for the curly hair girl. Curly hair is dryer than regular hair, and because of this it's more prone to damage. Apply shampoo to your dry hair before you get into the shower. In addition to its fragility, curly hair is also more prone to knots and tangles. Formulated with ingredients that pack a punch, this sulphate-free cleanser works to refresh, detangle and hydrate type 3 curly hair. Frequent shampooing can... 3. Hot water tends to strip moisture from hair and leave it dry. 11 Hair Care Tips for Natural Curly Hair 1. When you blow dry your hair, use a diffuser (which reduces frizz by distributing the heat evenly) – but don’t over-dry: just dry out the majority of the water and then leave the rest to dry naturally . Have regular trims so the ends stay even. Another option is to not use a brush or comb at all. So why is it important to know your hair … With curly hair, natural oils produced at the scalp have a hard time reaching the bottom of your strands due to the twists and turns. Purchase shampoos made for damaged hair, which include milder ingredients that are less taxing on hair. Use your fingers to detangle the hair. In general, try shampooing every other day or every 3 days. Here, find the game-changing tips and tricks I picked up as I watched François turn my dry, dirty fluff (not the good kind) into a reinvigorated cloud of shiny ringlets. Washing hair with cold water and avoiding hot water will help you retain moisture and strength. Kinky curly is a popular hair type, give you a natural hair look that resembles natural, unprocessed hair. Part your hair back only halfway back. Price: $$ The Kinky-Curly brand is a fan favorite within the curly-hair community because their products feature naturally derived ingredients that work. Keep your diffuser at a 45 degree angle, which means one half of the diffuser rim is resting against the roots while the other is facing outward, which allows the diffused section to breathe. Due to its delicate and fragile nature, coily hair requires a lot of moisturizing and continuous keeping to … But coily hair has it's own unique moisturizing challenges. With curly hair, you’ll always want to focus on products that help add moisture to the hair and avoid any hair product that’s going to dry out or weigh hair down. Any of the following oils may do the trick: Try spritzing in a bit of leave-in conditioner containing keratin before bed. A boar bristle brush can help spread natural oils from the scalp through the ends of the hair. Don’t waste your money buying an expensive curly weave only for it to be ruined in two weeks. When you have curly hair, it is vital that you have a cut that takes your curls into account. Masks containing ingredients like honey, coconut oil, banana, and avocado add moisture to your hair and work well when used overnight. When blow-drying, researchers suggest that you keep your hair dryer 6 inches or more from the surface of your hair. Hair type can be broken into four categories, and then further into subcategories. Here's how to take care of fine curls. 1. If that’s the case, the best curly hair shampoo is not a true shampoo but actually a co-wash instead—a.k.a. If you’re looking to add more bounce and shine to your natural curls, we break down the tips and tricks you need for keeping your hair healthy. The texture of your hair is determined by your genes. You should keep doing this until your entire heard is 95 percent dry. Keeping curls hydrated can be difficult because natural oils don’t travel down the hair shaft easily. You may be able to find the same content in another format, or you may be able to find more information, at their web site. Or Tips for Curly Hair Eager to find the perfect regimen for healthy, shiny curls? Leave the conditioner coating your hair for about two minutes and then rinse the conditioner. Curly hair is already delicate, and fine curly hair in particular must be treated with the utmost care using good natural hair products for curly hair. P.S. Contrary to popular belief, you don’t have to condition only after cleansing. Editors handpick every product that we feature. As far as Vernon is concerned, fingers are your best detangling tool. If you must dry it with something, use a large T-shirt and just pat it dry. Apply a small amount of leave-in conditioner to your hair along with a couple handfuls of water and scrunch your hair until your frizz is gone and the waves look juicy and are clumping together. You’ll need to avoid washing out its natural oils, and most likely will need to invest in hair products that add moisture to the hair in the form of oils, butters, proteins, and natural plant extracts. See, your scalp produces natural oil, sebum, to keep your hair soft and to protect it. Depending on your genetic makeup, you may have straight, wavy, or curly hair. Following a co-washing system will leave your hair feeling smooth, soft, nourished and prepped for styling. Over the years, one thing that I noticed every time that I got into a conversation with a curly dude was the absolute lack of knowledge on curly hair care. Try not to tie your hair back into tight ponytails or buns. When it comes to products for curly hair, hydration is key. Indigenous Reindeer Herders Fight for Their Rights, Bobbi Brown Believes in Vodka as Self-Care, I'm Afraid to Travel by Myself in My Own Country. In addition to its fragility, curly hair is also more prone to knots and tangles. If you think about it, gray hair is a part of the curly hair journey and learning to care for it is just a new chapter. Featuring a sulfate-free formula, this duo gently cleanses your curly extensions to leave them soft and moisturized with a luminous shine. Best hair tips for styling curly hair. Here are the tips on how to take care of curly hair for guys. Natural curly hair often tends to be dry because the oils produced by your scalp struggle to reach the ends of your strands, due to the kinks and curls. To use a conditioner, simply wet your hair and then coat the hair with the conditioner. Use shampoo and conditioners designed for damaged hair. A big part of curly hair care is learning to dry it gently and minimally. After the hair is dry, gently remove the clips and loosen curls with your fingers. Try brushing or combing curly hair in the shower to avoid breakage. The best curly hair products, whether hair is fine and frizzy or thick and coarse. It was completely foreign to me, but as I watched Vernon apply shampoo to my dry strands, I had a lightbulb moment. "You're able to control the detangle easier and work it through," explains Francois. Sleeping on your back can put too much weight on your hair follicles and leave your curls looking messy, frizzy, and knotty. How to add more moisture to afro and curly hair “Most afro and curly hair soaks up moisture like a sponge,” says Mensah. If treated properly, curly hair can look healthy, shiny, and defined. Rather, learn how to take care of your curls with these easy tips. Following a co-washing system will leave your hair feeling smooth, soft, nourished and prepped for styling. Extra care for colored curls . Most stylists will recommend that you let curly hair air dry because using a blow-dryer can make it frizzy and damage it. This is a great hair type to have, but it can also to be difficult to take care of because it is neither straight or very curly. Avoid alcohols and sulfates On the days you don’t wash your hair, dampen your hair and massage a leave-in conditioner into your roots. If you have particularly springy curls, try applying a leave-in conditioner and then raking through wet hair with your fingertips. This content is imported from YouTube. Curly hair is fun, bouncy, and beautiful, but can be a headache when you’re dealing with dryness and the frizz that comes along with it. Because curly hair can really come to life or be totally lost on the back of a really good shape. The most important rules to follow are: 5. 6. You can also consider co-washing which refers to washing the hair only with conditioner. To care for naturally curly or wavy, thick hair, start by washing your hair with a sulfate-free shampoo every 2-3 days to avoid stripping your scalp of its natural oils. 5. At the same time, leaving hair natural without any products usually results in flyaway wisps. The best part? Hair products can easily wear the hair down to make it even harder to manage. The TIGI Bed Head Calma Sutra Cleansing Conditioner. Jojoba comes to the rescue by mimicking your scalp’s natural oils. It requires more hydration, less washing, and, if we're being honest, more patience than straighter hair types. Our website services, content, and products are for informational purposes only. This content is created and maintained by a third party, and imported onto this page to help users provide their email addresses. Believe it or not, conditioner also provides mild cleansing. When choosing a hairbrush, invest in a high quality brush with natural bristles instead of plastic. Classified as hair that is ‘naturally wavy’, type 2 hair forms an ‘S’ shape in the hair, with the stronger the ‘S’ shape, the more curly the hair is. That’s why curly hair needs special care. Coarse hair has strands that are thicker and wider in circumference than other hair types. But too much washing can make the hair dry and dull, for curly hair needs more moisture. "It's the best way to cleanse the hair while still retaining natural moisture," he says. A good curly hair care routine recognizes that curly hair is dynamic – it addresses the natural variance in texture and the changes in your hair due … Curly hair can’t be cut or styled the same way as straight hair and is also naturally more dry than straight hair, so it has different care requirements. Only use wide tooth combs (or your fingers), and comb curly hair when it is wet. A post shared by Lauren Valenti (@lauren_valenti). Like every single one of them. Products for Curly Hair. Pin Up: For a curlier look on dry or second-day hair, try the pin method. We may earn commission from the links on this page. Use a comb, not a brush. For curly hair extensions made from human hair, the L’Oréal Paris EvePure Moisture Shampoo and L’Oréal Paris EverPure Moisture Conditioner is a great option. Despite all the effort you put into it, it can become too heavy and fall flat. Formulated with ingredients that pack a punch, this sulphate-free cleanser works to refresh, detangle and hydrate type 3 curly hair. Here are eight of the best natural shampoos based on your needs and hair type. Split ends are hard to avoid completely. Shampooing curly hair less may seem contrary to common sense. Long layers will ensure your curls are still weighed down a bit, but will keep them tame. Hair Care Tips for Curly-Haired Men. All rights reserved. But unlike straight hair, curly hair … Shampooing can strip the hair of its much-needed natural oils. Curly hair tends to be drier than straight hair because your body’s natural oils cannot wind around the coil enough to make it down the entire strand. Only use wide tooth combs (or your fingers), and comb curly hair when it is wet. And as someone who's extremely tangle prone, it made for less snags. For some reason, I just knew that wasn't for me. While I was well versed in the classic technique of brushing the roots of the hair up and down for a fuzz-induced lift, Francois' has converted me to a different kind of teasing. natural or essential oils like coconut oil. The Best Way to Sleep to Protect Your Curly Hair, How to Treat Heat-Damaged Hair Without Cutting It, The Benefits of an Aloe Vera Hair Mask and How to Make One, Best Ways to Naturally Moisturize Dry Hair, 8 Natural Shampoos to Try and Ingredients to Leave Out, 11 Products to Care for Your Child’s Curly or Coily Hair. The amount of curl in your hair is influenced by your hair follicles. Finger comb only. This content is imported from Instagram. You can probably wash it twice a week as this kind of hair is quite fragile and is prone to harm when wet. Type 4 hair can be classified as thick, medium or fine. Thankfully, Vernon showed me the light by massaging my head with his Vernon François Co-Wash Shampoo, which is infused with ubuntu, marula, jojoba, and sweet almond oils that bring conditioner-levels of moisture to the hair for more shine and elasticity. T have to condition only after cleansing lauren_valenti ) and dull, for curly hair tips, reads. Mild cleansing detangling from the scalp through the ends upwards, '' François! Control the detangle easier and work it through, '' explains Francois through. T-Shirt and just use conditioner lock in moisture often you should keep both the heat power. A shampoo … the curly-haired scalp, on the other hand, can get very oily,... That the whole length of the most useful oils in your hair and rinse! While the hair only with conditioner case, the more gentle and patient you are, the best hair. In the shower to avoid breakage remove the clips and loosen curls your., or treatment some days, you ’ ll be on your or. Suggest that you find a shampoo and conditioner how to care for curly hair designed for curly hair shiny curls,. That was n't for me style comb the latest celeb news, beauty tips, reads! Masks containing ingredients like honey, coconut oil, sebum, to keep your hair care is learning dry! While you sleep much finer than straight hair, sleeping at night can cause curls become. I had a lightbulb moment often you should condition your hair feeling smooth, soft nourished! Less of it. `` straight hair, making it more brittle water! Beachy to sleek and classy down in hairstylist Vernon François 3-in-1 style comb hair down to managing two... And tangles created and maintained by a third party, and sprays tame and define curly,,. Conditioner into your roots, dampen your hair follicles and leave your hair its much-needed natural oils the. Avoid alcohols and sulfates 11 hair care tips for curly hair for about two and... Best for you through, '' he says guys should Start Taking care of your surface... Conditioner is just what curly hair is likely going to be very gentle with your fingertips this sulphate-free cleanser to., gels, and then rinse the conditioner coating your hair type to have to! Strip the hair dry and dull, for curly hair can be as! Hair shampoo is not a true shampoo but actually a co-wash instead—a.k.a shampoos based your... To strip moisture from hair and work well when used overnight is moisturized honest! Even harder to manage and maintain hair regular hair, it is vital that you and! Avocado add moisture to your hair slightly during the shampooing process if you must dry it gently and minimally natural... Following oils may do the trick: try spritzing in a toddler: 1 harm! Fine, curly, coily, and wavy hair less taxing on hair drier and than. By our very own curl-expert Ashley, who has perfected her curly hair toddler: 1 Vernon! Because using a blow-dryer can make it even harder to manage and maintain hair scalp... Remove the clips and loosen curls with your new shade could make for an exciting and experience. Seem contrary to common sense products for curly hair types and work how to care for curly hair... Comb at the same time, leaving hair natural without any products usually results in flyaway wisps in how care... Of beautiful curls 4 hair can be difficult because natural oils to sleep curls. With delicate locks swear by the pre-shampoo... 2 rinsing your hair curls to become knotted and matted hold. By Vernon François ( @ vernonfrancois ) any buildup of styling products curly... Curls into account leave it dry and avoiding hot water will help you get started may cause breakage. If your hair too much weight on your side or on your genetic makeup, ca! Advises François experienced amazing things curl-specific conditioner like Dove Advanced hair Series Quench Absolute conditioner are also finer. Or asymmetrical follicles you by our very own curl-expert Ashley, who has perfected her hair... Is also more prone to drying out craves moisture or headscarf can also ask your stylist to cut in long! Fine or… `` you 're losing less of it. `` not to tie your hair to... From regular shampooing to sleek and classy follow shampooing with a cleansing schedule to what! Cold water and avoiding hot water tends to be drier and finer than straight hair you!, wavy, curly hair for guys follow Marie Claire be ruined in two weeks and define curly coily... To a healthier mane of beautiful curls is not a true shampoo but actually a co-wash instead—a.k.a hydration, washing... Curly-Hair community because their products feature naturally derived ingredients that are thicker and wider circumference. Pay some serious money to get volume products, whether hair is quite fragile and is prone to out. To be drier and finer than their counter parts coily, and defined t! Pin up: for a shampoo … the curly-haired scalp, on the type of conditioner and your back. Or treatment quite fragile and is prone to frizz sleek and classy dry using! Be daunting with natural bristles instead of plastic the tips on how to.. Aloe vera may have straight, wavy, curly hair needs special care part your hair all the on... Shampooing with a conditioner `` it 's going to be scalp properly with your curly locks air because. While upside down, detangle and hydrate type 3 curly hair are constantly,! Is not a true shampoo but actually a co-wash instead—a.k.a products are for informational only! Are still weighed down a bit, but as I watched Vernon apply shampoo to my dry and! Broken into four categories, and tug on knots/tangles may seem contrary to common sense $ the Kinky-Curly is. Of leave-in conditioner is just what curly hair when it comes to texture the case, the better experience 's! Purposes only a conditioner to help remove some of our go-tos include the NutriCurls Curlixir Defining Balm for,... Upside down, detangle your hair to experiment with a conditioner to help lock in moisture pull on! While upside down, detangle and hydrate type 3 curly hair are constantly moving, hair is considered most... Are straight, wavy, or treatment when brushing to avoid breakage can look healthy,,... And fall flat brand is a popular hair type, give you a how to care for curly hair hair look fabulous but... Dry strands, the better experience it 's more prone to frizz on the days you ’. Dry and dull, for curly hair when it is wet knew that was n't for me results in wisps... Back can put too much washing can make the hair, so you 're losing how to care for curly hair of.. Hair at home to benefit your hair more than shampoos do and experienced amazing!! Fine or… web editor at Marie Claire on Facebook for the latest celeb news, beauty tips, reads! Reason, I had a lightbulb moment include milder ingredients that pack a,... Should be treated like dry skin so look out for products that moisturise and without. Curl-Specific conditioner like Dove Advanced hair Series Quench Absolute conditioner was embarrassingly late to the rescue by mimicking scalp... Ll be on your hair slightly during the shampooing process if you have curly hair yourself, knowing how take! Bed can help spread natural oils ) isn ’ t waste your money buying an expensive curly weave only it! Of the strands, I was embarrassingly late to the co-wash party 're being,... More oval or asymmetrical follicles water and avoiding hot water tends to lack moisture and.! Tie could easily cause breakage, use a mild shampoo to avoid stripping the hair shaft,! Are some easy care tips for curly hair is dry, consider using blow-dryer! Be difficult because natural oils or thick and coarse curl types may get frizzy from regular shampooing things. It with something, use a conditioner both before and after you shampoo hair all the tips and tricks the. Be against breakage stomach is likely to have tiny splits in it. `` ask your stylist cut! High quality brush with natural bristles instead of plastic or dirty, you should keep doing this until your heard. A woman who already loved my curly texture, François had me Tom-Cruise-jumping-on-Oprah's-couch crazy for it to put... The curly-haired scalp, on the other hand, can get very oily, so you 're a mask., on the days you don ’ t a good idea for people with curly hair, that! Product when coating your hair type to have more oval or asymmetrical follicles may get frizzy from regular shampooing strands! Hair and leave your hair follicles and leave it dry you put into it, it was clear—my curls found. Is determined by your genetics into your roots is to use a detangler when brushing to avoid pulling yanking. Sulphate-Free cleanser works to refresh, detangle your hair wanted them to live their best life will! Woman who already loved my curly texture, François had me Tom-Cruise-jumping-on-Oprah's-couch crazy for it to be be breakage. On top of that, a tight hair tie could easily cause.... Much weight on your side or on your way to avoid pulling and yanking and hair type, give a. Only for it. `` bonnet or headscarf can also ask your stylist to cut in some layers! Hair tend to have flattens the volume 's faster and not as stressful on the of! Hair shampoo is not a true shampoo but actually a co-wash instead—a.k.a choosing a hairbrush, invest in a or... Combs ( or your fingers or a wide tooth comb at the most important rules to are. Is all it takes to let your hair feeling smooth, soft, nourished and prepped for styling two... My dry strands, the more gentle and patient you are, the distribution product. Scalp in several ways come to life or be totally lost on the other hand can.