When a soft body is beneatha cover, the plant is likely to have live armored scales. The adult female beetle lays eggs underneath the scale or attached to scale egg sacs. Nymphs of the cottony cushion scale, Icerya purchasi. Publ. 3359. Figure 12. Late in the summer, mature winged males mate with immature females. See our Home page, or in the U.S., contact your local Cooperative Extension office for assistance. An exception is on Cocculus laurifolius (laurel-leaf snailseed or laurel leaf cocculus); it is often highly infested with cottony cushion scale, especially when grown away from the coast, because scale-feeding vedalia beetles avoid this plant. Conserve natural enemies of cottony cushion scale by controlling ants and dust and by avoiding the use of persistent insecticides. Cottony maple scale is sometimes mistaken for Cottony Maple Leaf Scale (P. acericola). This adventive scale insect from Australia was first found in New Zealand in 1877 after which it became a serious pest on trees and shrubs, including citrus orchards, until controlled by the Australian cardinal ladybird, Rodolia cardinalis (Coccinellidae) and the fly, Cottony cushion scale parasitoid, Cryptochaetum iceryae (Cryptochetidae). Unless disrupted by insecticides, dust, or ants, natural enemies provide excellent control of cottony cushion scale. Calif. Agric. Peleg BA, 1989. Infestations are most easily noticed during the summer when females produce white, cottony egg sacs that resemble pieces of popcorn on a twigs. For additional photographs of each life stage of cottony cushion scale, consult Stages of the Cottony Cushion Scale (Icerya purchasi) and its Natural Enemy, the Vedalia Beetle (Rodolia cardinalis). They settle along leaf veins and begin to produce the white cottony secretion they are known for. Dreistadt, S. H., J. K. Clark, and M. L. Flint. 2004. Larvae molt two times and gradually increase in size. Like soft scales, cottony cushion scale excretes honeydew, which is usually accompanied by blackish sooty mold growth and ants (Figure 8). The eggs hatch into crawlers in late June and July and move from the twigs to the leaves where they feed along the midrib or the veins. Infestations are most easily noticed during the summer when females produce white, cottony egg sacs that resemble pieces of popcorn on a twigs. The other important natural enemy, the parasitic fly Cryptochaetum iceryae (Figure 12), deposits one to four eggs inside each second-instar, third-instar, or adult female scale body. The beetles are poisoned when they feed on cottony cushion scale that have ingested imidacloprid. Male scales are tiny, winged insects. Although imidacloprid has scale insects listed on the label, it doesn’t kill cottony cushion scale. The body of the female cottony cushion scale is orangish brown, but its most distinguishing feature is the elongated, fluted white cottony egg sac that is attached to its body. Spray after you observe a sharp increase in crawler production. The entire life cycle of the vedalia beetle is five to six weeks in warm weather. Oakland: Univ. For more information, see Pest Notes: Ants. Figure 3. The males die within a few days after mating as they are unable to feed. Calif. Agric. 7411. Second-instar nymphs settle on twigs and leaves, usually along leaf veins (Figure 5). For cottony cushion scale, there are some control options. Figure 1. The immature scale is flat, oval shaped, and light yellow to green. Pulvinaria vitis. The eggs hatch into larvae that feed within the scale. Mature vedalia beetle larva feeding on cottony cushion scale. Some soft scales are cottony maple scale, magnolia scale, and tuliptree scale. Evaluation of the insect growth regulator pyriproxyfen (Tiger) as a control agent for the California red scale and the cottony-cushion scale. The crawlers are red with black legs and antennae. cottony maple scale (soft scale) maple, basswood, black locust, boxelder, elm, maple: as above (for scales) imidacloprid (only for soft scales) Crawlers first active late June to early July, repeat 10 days later. Contact UC IPM, Agriculture and Natural Resources, University of California, © 2019 Regents of the University of California The cottony maple scale is most easily recognized by the characteristic egg masses on twigs and branches. Whenthe bump itself can be squashed it is likely to be some othertype of scale. The body is covered with flakes of clear wax. ... Commercial examples include: pyrethroids, dinotefuran, imidacloprid, buprofezin, spirotetramat, and more If natural enemies are absent, the infestation is intolerable, and the population is in the treatable crawler stage, the organophosphates malathion or acephate can be effective. Figure 5. Flip over suspiciouslooking bumps on twigs and branches with a thumbnail. Coffee scale is a major agricultural pest in coffee crops. The honeydew also becomes a nuisance due to deposits on automobiles and lawn furniture located under infested trees. Cottony cushion scale females have both male and female sexual organs (hermaphrodites) and can produce female offspring asexually through parthenogenesis.Eggs (600 - 800) are contained within an ovisac attached to the body of the female. UC Statewide IPM Program. Other systemic insecticides like dinotefuron and clothianidin are being evaluated at this time and may also be effective. Contact webmaster. Although adult females with their white, ridged egg sacs are the most obvious stage, insecticides don’t control adults well. The cottony maple scale is common on maple, boxelder, hackberry, dogwood, beech, apple, oak, linden, honeylocust, and elm. A dormant oil spray applied to the trunk and branches of the tree may also be used to reduce overwintering female populations and eliminate the risk of killing off beneficial insects such as lady beetles and parasites. PDF: To display a PDF document, you may need to use a Publ. Adult female beetles lay their oblong red eggs underneath the female scale or attached to her egg sac. However, over-fertilization favors scale buildup. Consequently, they may not be effective where several … Spray treatment for crawler stage: The plant may be covered in sooty mold as a result of the large quantities of honeydew produced by the calico scale. (on oak, hickory, ash, birch, beech, honeylocust, yews, arborvitae, Prunus spp. To make matters worse, imidacloprid is very toxic to vedalia beetles. The European fruit lecanium scale is the most common soft scale in Utah. The scale overwinters as an immature female on the twigs of the host. Wasp Parasite of Cottony Maple Scale. Figure 2. Reddish beetle pupae develop within the grayish skin of the last larval instar (Figure 11). Alternatively, pesticide baits such as ant stakes may be placed near nests or on ant trails beneath plants. Its cottony egg sac and profuse honeydew production make cottony cushion scale easy to spot in the landscape. Feeding can result in defoliation and dieback of twigs and small branches when infestations are extremely heavy (Figure 7). The Regents of the University of California. Produced by University of California Statewide IPM Program. Once eggs begin hatching, scale crawlers get stuck on the tape and appear as red or orange specks. UC IPM Home > and many others) have a similar life cycle to the calico scale. The eggs are usually brown. Both of these natural enemies can be extremely effective in controlling cottony cushion scale because of their short generation time (four to six weeks) and host specificity, attacking only cottony cushion scale. Severely prune back heavily infested branches and protect new growth with insecticide applications. The eggs hatch into pale yellow-green crawlers in late June or July and migrat… Pest description and crop damage This scale overwinters on grape canes as an immature brownish to black scale of about 0.06 to 0.14 inch long and has a flat and oval outline. Evidence of these natural enemies of the host 10 ) and its mobility throughout its life ant populations active. Its legs and antennae most easily noticed in late fall and early.... First nymph stage, of the cottony cushion scale, Icerya purchasi University of California during.! 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