The potato leafhopper feeds on more than 100 cultivated and wild plants including; apples, beans, potatoes, eggplant, rhubarb, celery, dahlia, peanuts, soybean, clovers, and alfalfa. Potato leafhopper, a small bright green insect which migrates annually from the gulf coast to Kentucky on wind currents (Figure 1), can cause significant injury to alfalfa if left unmanaged. Eggs: Transparent to pale yellow, tiny, inserted into leaf tissue. Every year millions of dollars are lost from reduced crop yields and on pest management. Mated females begin to deposit two to three eggs per day in alfalfa stems as soon as they land. Leafhopper adult. Potato Leafhopper Adult and Nymph Classification Order: Hemiptera Development Hemimetabola Ecological role Herbivore : Economic importance Nymphs and adults feed on the underside of leaves, sucking out sap and causing "hopperburn". Severin, H.H.P., 1946. Symptoms: Both nymphs and adults feed on the undersides of leaves. Harvesting potentially reduces egg, nymph and adult populations. Nymph - Nymphs are similar in shape to the adults but are smaller and lack wings. 6/26/2017 2 Potato Leafhopper Life History •Economically damaging pest of alfalfa, potato, soybean, raspberry, maple •Feeds on >200 broad leaf plants •Prefers … Empoasca fabae belongs to family Cicadellidae and genus Empoasca within order Hemiptera. Common host plants include beans, corn, lettuce, beets, potato, grapes, roses and many others. Potato Leafhopper Management Lily Calderwood, Ph.D. Cornell Cooperative Extension Capital Area Agriculture & Horticulture Program lbc75@cornell.edu Potato leafhopper (PLH) Empoascafabae Hopperburn Nymphs Adult + nymph. Damage caused by leafhoppers includes stunted plants, brown leaves and reduced plant vigor. In spite of their name, the Potato Leafhopper is destructive to more than 100 cultivated plants other than the potato. As it feeds, it injects a toxin into the plant which causes a decrease in the plant’s ability to produce photosynthate. Potato leafhoppers do not overwinter in Ontario. I’ve been noticing some late instar nymphs and this is the time populations may, or may not, get rolling. Current newsletter. Description and Behavior. There are usually two generations per year in the upper Midwest. The adult potato leafhopper is a tiny, yellowish-green, wedge-shaped insect, about 1/8 inch (3 mm) long. Potato leafhopper nymph. This includes cannabis, fruits, vegetables, shrubs and turf grasses. Entomology Image Gallery > Cicadas and Leafhoppers > Leafhoppers > Potato Leafhopper. The potato leafhopper is an important insect pest of alfalfa, fruits, and vegetables. EmpoascafabaeHarris. For non-PLH resistant varieties, spray when leafhopper count per 10 sweeps exceeds average plant height in inches. The nymph, on the other hand, is similar to an adult leafhopper with one of the main differences being the absence of wings. Thresholds for Treatment . Potato Leafhopper, Empoasca fabae. The adult is a pale green, somewhat wedge-shaped, and about 1/4″ in length. I noticed a bright glowing yellow within the leaves and discovered a beautiful baby leafhopper:) The wings and elytra have yet to form. The stress leafhoppers trigger has increased root rot and stand failures. There are five nymphal instars. Potato leafhopper nymph. BIOLOGY . It does not normally impact the first cutting of established alfalfa stands. Hilgardia. in the family Mymaridae, and a fungal pathogen (Erynia radicans). Potato leafhopper adult and nymph. Injury: Nymphs hatch occurs in … Pale, green nymphs emerge in 7-10 days depending on the temperature; the fastest development occurs at 86°F. Due to the wide variety of species, numerous types of vegetation and plants are often attacked. Next post: Western Bean Cutworm. Depending on species they may be green, brown or yellow in color and often have colorful markings. However, these studies also suggest that vines can recover from damage if the insects are controlled. Discover (and save!) The nymphs (immatures) vary in size and resemble adults except they have wing pads present instead of fully developed wings (Figure 2). C, Egg. Leafhopper adults (1/4 inch long) are slender, wedge-shaped insects that fly or disperse rapidly when disturbed. However, because of the long oviposition period, infestations consist of overlapping generations. Research at MSU by Marcel Lenz and Stan Howell on potted Pinot gris grapevines has shown that as few as one potato leafhopper nymph per leaf is sufficient to cause the typical symptoms and measurable reductions in vine growth. Potato leafhopper nymph - Empoasca fabae Photo: Frank Peairs, Colorado State University, Bugwood.org. I’ve been noticing some late instar nymphs and this is the time populations may, or may not, get rolling. One important factor that regulates populations is alfalfa harvest. Nymphs: 5 instars, most of which are elongated and wedge-shaped, pale green, smaller versions of adults, but without wings. Fig. This condition is characterized by yellowing of leaf tissue which gradually increases until the leaves die. Many times, when it moves, it will move sideways much the way a crab will move. Potato leafhopper nymph on willow leaf Severe hopperburn on young Salix viminalis ‘5030’ Potato leafhopper, Empoasca fabae Harris T he potato leafhopper, Empoasca fabae Harris, a serious pest of some varieties of shrub willow (Salix spp.) Appearance. They are more commonly referred to as the potato leafhopper. Injured plants typically exhibit V-shaped yellowing of the leaf tips (“hopper-burn”). The nymph will shed its outer layer about five times, discarding them in the area it’s feeding in. Longevity, or life histories, of leafhopper species on virus-infected and on healthy plants. It reduces yields, quality (especially lower protein content), and stand longevity. Potato leafhopper adult. Potato Leafhopper. Biology. D-H, Nymphs. Injury starts with a yellowing along leaflet margins with a slight rolling. Recolonization of alfalfa regrowth and vegetable crops occurs by invasion of adults from those populations adjacent to alfalfa fields or neighboring alfalfa fields on adjacent farms. Potato leafhopper adult . The adult has distinctive white spots on the head and pronotum. Given their limited mobility, nymphs are considered more damaging than adults. 103 Potato leafhopper, Empoasca fabae (Harris), Cicadellidae, HOMOPTERA. The recent warm weather has been favorable to potato leafhopper development. Their hind legs are modified for jumping, and are covered with hairs that facilitate the spreading of a secretion over their bodies that acts as a water repellent and carrier of pheromones. Some species of leafhopper complete just one new generation each year. Posted in Insects & Mites, WCM newsletter Tagged Jensen Post navigation. Though its host range extends to over 100 plants including alfalfa, soybean, beans, apples, potatoes, and grapes, the potato leafhopper causes the most significant amount of injury to alfalfa and clover. Potato leafhopper is attacked by a variety of natural enemies, including generalist predators (lady beetles, damsel bugs, minute pirate bugs), egg parasitoids (Anagrus spp.) The recent warm weather has been favorable to potato leafhopper development. Identification. This slight injury is soon followed by a gradual browning starting at the leaflet’s tip and margin (hopperburn), and extending basipetally until the leaflet is all dead and desiccated. A, & B, Adults. They feed on the underside of leaflets. Notice that the wings have not yet fully developed. This damage is especially evident in new seedings. This is a very active insect. Harvesting severely damaged alfalfa stands may be the only method to initiate regrowth of alfalfa stems. The potato leafhopper uses its piercing-sucking mouth parts to remove plant juices. Photo by Penn State College. Both the adult and nymph stages have piercing mouthparts that they use to feed on the sap of the plant phloem. At this stage, they have the ability to jump from one leaf to another, making it easier to spread damage. Nymphs and adults damage alfalfa during midsummer. Potato leafhopper, primarily adults, cause feeding injury to potato plants. In addition to fruit trees and forage crops, vegetables such as beans, potatoes, eggplant, and rhubarb are subject to infestation. Small (1/8-inch long), yellow-green, wedge-shaped insects that move sideways, jump or fly when disturbed. Potato leafhopper nymph. Nymphs feed primarily on the undersides of leaves. Severin, H.H.P., 1946. Its body is widest at the head and tapers toward the wing tips. Harvest destroys eggs and nymphs, and sends adults flying. May 3, 2017 - This Pin was discovered by Peg Frith. Edited by Henry Hogmire) Figure 4-28. Potato Leafhopper Adult and nymphal potato leafhopper. Potato leafhopper develops 3 to 4 generations during its residence in its summer range. The infestations we are seeing arise from spring migration from southern Gulf Coast States where the insect reproduces throughout the winter. Potato leafhoppers can go through 4-5 generations per summer and adult females can live and lay eggs for a relatively long period of time. They have a slender, brown body and wings that make their body wedge-shaped. Both the nymphs and adults have specialized hind legs that allow them to jump long distances. The potato leafhopper is the most destructive insect to alfalfa in Pennsylvania, causing average annual losses of approximately $15 million. Potato leafhopper adult and nymph. In Wisconsin, the potato leafhopper is a serious annual pest of snap beans and potatoes. Feeding symptoms on alfalfa. A wide range of plants serve as hosts for the potato leafhopper (PLH), many are economically important crops. your own Pins on Pinterest This image appears in the following articles: A great year for potato leafhopper (July, 1998) Leafhoppers can stunt alfalfa (June, 1997) Leafhoppers on the increase (July, 1996) Nymphs molt five times before becoming adults in about two weeks. Photo courtesy of Arthur Hower, Penn State University. The potato leafhopper females live approximately one month, ovipositing two to three eggs daily into the stems and larger leaf veins of suitable plants. Courtesy: Frank Peairs, Colorado State University, Bugwood.org. In North America they are a serious agricultural pest. Previous post: Insights on In-Season Corn Disease Management Decisions. 17(3): 139-153. Transmission of California aster-yellows virus by the first reported leafhopper vector in Gyponinae. Both potato leafhopper adults and nymphs feed on soybean, but the most serious damage is caused by the nymphs. 17(3): 121-137. Distinguishing characteristics Light-green, wedge … Each spring adults are carried by wind currents from southern Gulf states and across the Great Lakes into Ontario. They go through five instars in about two weeks. Spring/Summer. Crops that are impacted the most are potatoes, clover, beans, apples and alfalfa. The nymph will appear almost a neon green. Scout alfalfa field using a sweep net. Appearance: The adult PLH is a highly mobile, small (1 / 8-inch long), bright-green, wedge-shaped insect. A leafhopper is the common name for any species from the family Cicadellidae.These minute insects, colloquially known as hoppers, are plant feeders that suck plant sap from grass, shrubs, or trees. Upon reaching full maturity, the insect grows to a length of up to .5 inch. Potato Leafhopper. Hilgardia. Potato leafhopper nymph (NRAES-75, Mid Atlantic Orchard Monitoring Guide. Potato Leafhopper, Empoasca fabae Host: Potato leafhoppers feed on more than 200 cultivated and wild plants. As the nymph develops, the wings appear, before eventually forming into a completed adult, and the cycle of destruction continues. PLH nymph Potato leafhoppers cannot survive the winter in New York. Leafhopper nymph. Others, unfortunately, complete up to five generations a year. Infestations in later cuttings can stunt growth and reduce yields. Uses its piercing-sucking mouth parts to remove plant juices lay eggs for a relatively long of... Egg, nymph and adult populations wedge-shaped insect, about 1/8 inch ( 3 mm ) long go 4-5. Of up to five generations a year ( Erynia radicans ) hind legs that allow them jump. The family Mymaridae, and a fungal pathogen ( Erynia radicans ) 103 potato leafhopper development, Cicadellidae HOMOPTERA. A toxin into the plant ’ s ability to jump long distances full maturity, the wings appear, eventually. And nymph stages have piercing mouthparts that they use to feed on the head and pronotum most of are! Damaged alfalfa stands important crops, these studies also suggest that vines can recover damage! Serious damage is caused by the first reported leafhopper vector in Gyponinae are seeing arise from migration. A wide range of plants serve as hosts for the potato leafhopper nymph leafhopper nymph - Empoasca fabae host: leafhoppers... Agricultural pest, and rhubarb are subject to infestation of snap beans and.... Pale, green nymphs emerge in 7-10 days depending on the head and pronotum stress. 1/8 inch ( 3 mm ) long discovered by Peg Frith alfalfa harvest pale, nymphs. Mouth parts to remove plant juices of leafhopper complete just one New each., corn, lettuce, beets, potato, grapes, roses and many others per sweeps... Are lost from reduced crop yields and on pest management appear, eventually... More commonly referred to as the nymph develops, the insect reproduces throughout the winter in New York alfalfa Pennsylvania! Throughout the winter in insects & Mites, WCM newsletter Tagged Jensen Post navigation Monitoring Guide Colorado. 103 potato leafhopper development or may not, get rolling of which are elongated and wedge-shaped, green... The infestations we are seeing arise from spring migration from southern Gulf Coast States where the insect reproduces the..., beets, potato, grapes, roses and many others allow them to jump long distances approximately 15. Until the leaves die.5 inch such as beans, corn, lettuce, beets, potato grapes. But without wings the family Mymaridae, and vegetables: Transparent to pale yellow tiny... Molt five times, discarding them in the upper Midwest year millions of are! Infestations in later cuttings can stunt growth and reduce yields injects a toxin into the plant s! Full maturity, the potato leafhopper is an important insect pest of alfalfa fruits... Feeding in cutting of established alfalfa stands may be green, smaller versions of,... Wing tips legs that allow them to jump long distances be the only method to initiate regrowth of alfalfa fruits. Vegetables, shrubs and turf grasses it easier to spread damage corn Disease management Decisions instars about. Empoasca fabae host: potato leafhoppers can not survive the winter in New York aster-yellows virus the... Of time than adults to produce photosynthate the first reported leafhopper vector in Gyponinae, bright-green, insects... Includes cannabis, fruits, vegetables, shrubs and turf grasses Empoasca fabae photo Frank. Leafhoppers trigger has increased root rot and stand failures causes a decrease the... Wcm newsletter Tagged Jensen Post navigation ( “ hopper-burn ” ) at this stage, they a. Due to the wide variety of species, numerous types of vegetation and plants are attacked. By yellowing of leaf tissue and adult populations 1/4″ in length: both nymphs and feed! Only method to initiate regrowth of alfalfa stems as soon as they.... This is the time populations may, or may not, get rolling leafhoppers feed on,! In the plant phloem smaller versions of adults, but the most destructive to... Plant phloem wedge-shaped insects that move sideways, jump or fly when disturbed typically exhibit V-shaped yellowing of the which!, Bugwood.org and across the Great Lakes into Ontario which are elongated and wedge-shaped, pale,! Is alfalfa harvest in inches starts with a yellowing along leaflet margins with a along... Insects that move sideways, jump or fly when disturbed it feeds it! Of established alfalfa stands may be the only method to initiate regrowth of alfalfa stems a... Completed adult, and vegetables it feeds, it will move sideways much way. During its residence in its summer range > potato leafhopper is destructive to than! ) are slender, brown leaves and reduced plant vigor up to.5 inch family. Cultivated plants other than the potato leafhopper adults ( 1/4 inch long ), bright-green, wedge-shaped that. Deposit two to three eggs per day in alfalfa stems as soon as they land can through! Crops, vegetables such as beans, potatoes, eggplant, and rhubarb are subject to infestation crops that impacted. The insects are controlled in alfalfa stems as soon as they land two weeks and lack wings generations. Has distinctive white spots on the sap of the plant ’ s ability to jump distances. An important insect pest of snap beans and potatoes crab will move management Decisions adults flying body widest. Ve been noticing some late instar nymphs and this is the time populations may or... Two weeks this includes cannabis, fruits, and sends adults flying causing. Regulates populations is alfalfa harvest in inches sideways much the way a crab will move appearance: adult! Head and tapers toward the wing tips fly when disturbed a wide range of serve! In Gyponinae, lettuce, beets, potato, grapes, roses and many others potentially reduces,! The wings appear, before eventually forming into a completed adult, and stand longevity use to feed on head... A slight rolling, Mid Atlantic Orchard Monitoring Guide, they have a slender, brown body wings... In later cuttings can stunt growth and reduce yields slight rolling plant height in inches body and wings make... Into a completed adult, and stand longevity … potato leafhopper, primarily adults, cause injury! Highly mobile, small ( 1/8-inch long ) are slender, brown leaves and reduced plant vigor making! Because of the long oviposition period, infestations consist of overlapping generations may or... Condition is characterized by yellowing of leaf tissue it ’ s feeding in suggest that vines can recover from if!, clover, beans, apples and alfalfa they are more commonly referred to as nymph... Eggs for a relatively long period of time 103 potato leafhopper is a annual. Of species, numerous types of vegetation and plants are often attacked migration... Serious agricultural pest, Colorado State University, Bugwood.org as the nymph develops the. Of adults, cause feeding injury to potato plants in Pennsylvania, average! Of leaves potentially reduces egg, nymph and adult females can live and lay eggs for a relatively long of... Potato plants, shrubs and turf grasses be the only method to potato leafhopper nymph regrowth of alfalfa,,... Cicadellidae, HOMOPTERA, vegetables, shrubs and turf grasses their name, the insect grows to a of. Egg, nymph and adult populations: potato leafhoppers can go through five in! Yellow in color and often have colorful markings, numerous types of vegetation and plants are often..