[53] The ship was relieved as flagship by Revenge in June[54] and she was ordered to Palestine in August where her crew helped to suppress rioting in Haifa and also operated the Haifa-Jerusalem railroad. Tiesenhausen ordered all four bow torpedo tubes fired at a range of 375 metres (410 yd) at 16:25. )cruisers was towed up the Forth from Scapa Flow for scrapping. While the other four ships of the Queen Elizabeth class were given a second, more extensive refit in the mid-to-late 1930s (which for Warspite, Valiant and Queen Elizabeth amounted to a complete reconstruction with new machinery and superstructures), changes to Barham were relatively minor. [51], Barham became flagship of the 1st Battle Squadron of the Atlantic Fleet in April 1919, and made a port visit to Cherbourg, France that month together with the rest of the squadron. [88], There was no time for evasive action, and three of the four torpedoes struck amidships so closely together as to throw up a single massive water column. The British and the German fleets returned home; the British lost two cruisers to submarine attacks, and one German dreadnought had been torpedoed. Curiously, Gardiner & Gray, Silverstone, and Parkes all give a launch date of 31 October; Gordon devotes a whole chapter to this issue as the various accounts cannot be reconciled with the surviving records. Twelve of the fourteen BL 6-inch (152 mm) Mk XII guns were mounted in casemates along the broadside of the vessel amidships; the remaining pair were mounted on the forecastle deck near the aft funnel and were protected by gun shields. Apr 24, 2017 - Explosion British battleship 'Barham' (HMS Barham). She had been struck by four torpedoes. The Royal Navy's Room 40 had intercepted and decrypted German radio traffic containing plans of the operation. [53] Together with her sister Malaya, Barham was sent to Alexandria, Egypt, in May 1927 during a time of unrest. On the night of 25 March, Barham and the rest of the fleet sailed from Scapa Flow to support Beatty's battlecruisers and other light forces raiding the German Zeppelin base at Tondern. Evan-Thomas turned northeast at around 18:06 and then made a slow turn to the southeast once he spotted the Grand Fleet. En route, Eagle's aircraft attacked Tripoli on 26 November. The boat dived out of control after she broached, reaching an indicated depth of 265 metres (869 ft), well below her design depth rating of 150 metres (490 ft), before she stabilised without any damage. The detonation blew a 7-by-7-foot (2.1 by 2.1 m) hole in the main deck, sent fragments through the middle and lower decks and burned out the casemate for starboard No. Two destroyers picked up 474 survivors. Saved by Robert Mann. This sent splinters in every direction and started a small fire, but otherwise did no significant damage. This increased her metacentric height to about 7 feet (2.1 m) at deep load, despite the increase in her deep displacement to 35,970 long tons (36,550 t). While under repair in December 1939 – March 1940, a 20-barrel Unrotated projectile (UP) rocket launcher was installed on the roof of 'B' turret and her HACS Mk I directors were replaced with Mk III models. Barham was then transferred to the Mediterranean Fleet, where she covered multiple Malta convoys. [49] Barham was refitted at Rosyth from 7–23 February 1918[50] and Waller was relieved by Captain Henry Buller on 18 April. The sea was unusually calm and we were on the port leg of the zigzag with Queen Elizabeth leading, and Barham in the centre. [23] During another training exercise in early December, the ship was accidentally rammed by her sister ship Warspite on 3 December. When viewing the film of her sinking, other than smoke … Subsequently the resulting hit caused a massive explosion on HMS Barham resulting in her loss and that of 2/3rds of her crew. VALIANT and WARSPITE in background. It was presumed that she must have been only just below the surface when she crept through the screen of the12 destroyers so the ASDICs failed to detect her and the surface ships were also closely packed. On the morning of 25 September, Richelieu was the first ship to open fire at 09:04 at a range of 24,000 yards (22,000 m). No hits were observed and the ships stopped firing after making their turn north, but Barham opened fire for a short time when they fell in line with the Grand Fleet a few minutes later, probably without making any hits. The Italian ships and the British arrived almost simultaneously at Pola's location, but the Italians had almost no clue that the British were nearby. They were designed to reduce the effect of torpedo detonations and improve stability[11] at the cost of widening the ship's beam by almost 14 feet (4.3 m) to 104 feet (31.7 m),[12] and reduced her draught to 32 feet 6 inches (9.9 m). It was a beautiful sight - 3 large battleships steaming in a line ahead and with a screen of twelve destroyers in a “V shape” ahead and around us. Sinking of the HMS Barham. Underwater protection was improved by the addition of torpedo bulges. "We were standing by a … situated just above the bridge, and throughout the day we had been receiving reports of shadowing aircraft. As the battleship rolled over to port, her magazines exploded and she quickly sank with the loss of more than two-thirds of the crew. Apparently a fire aboard the Barham caused a small magazine to explode and this in turn blew into the main magazine of the battleship. [9], The ship was extensively refitted between January 1931 and January 1934 at a cost of £424,000. [63], Barham, the battlecruiser Repulse and the destroyers Fame, Icarus, Imogen, Isis and Nubian were on patrol off the Butt of Lewis to protect against a possible break-out into the Atlantic by German warships when they were spotted by the German submarine U-30, commanded by Fritz-Julius Lemp, on 28 December. public. Obviously, some combination of these factors did cause the ship to capsize and then explode, but I'd appreciate any technical insight that anybody has come across. The Queen Elizabeth class was ordered as part of the 1912 Naval Programme and the contract for Barham was awarded to John Brown & Company. U-331, a Type VII U-boat, prepares to torpedo the battleship HMS Barham in the Mediterranean on 25 November 1941. Three explosions were heard – one, two, three - and one or more of the torpedoes hit near a magazine. After a delay of several weeks the War Office notified the next of kin, but they added a special request for secrecy: the notification letters included a warning not to discuss the loss of the ship with anyone but close relatives, stating it was "most essential that information of the event which led to the loss of your husband's life should not find its way to the enemy until such time as it is announced officially..."[96] Following repeated claims by German radio,[97] the Admiralty officially announced the loss on 27 January 1942 and explained that .mw-parser-output .templatequote{overflow:hidden;margin:1em 0;padding:0 40px}.mw-parser-output .templatequote .templatequotecite{line-height:1.5em;text-align:left;padding-left:1.6em;margin-top:0}, it was clear at that time that the enemy did not know that she had been sunk, and it was important to make certain dispositions before the loss of this ship was made public. [54] On 3 January 1941, the ship, together with Warspite and Valiant, bombarded Bardia as a prelude to the Battle of Bardia. Lützow was only slightly damaged by these hits, which essentially only knocked out the primary and back-up wireless rooms while the shells that hit Derfflinger hit the side of the ship's bow, knocking off several armour plates, while fragments opened holes that ultimately allowed roughly 2,000 tonnes (1,968 long tons) of water to enter the bow. Her listeners were astounded by the news. As the British battleships were manoeuvring to take up their positions, the submarine Bévéziers fired a spread of four torpedoes at a range of 2,700 yards (2,500 m). 201–202, 2-pounder (40 mm (1.6 in)) Mk VIII "pom-pom", Castles of Steel: Britain, Germany, and the Winning of the Great War at Sea, List of dreadnought battleships of the Royal Navy, Shipwrecks and maritime incidents in December 1939, Shipwrecks and maritime incidents in November 1941, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=HMS_Barham_(04)&oldid=995643417, World War I battleships of the United Kingdom, World War II battleships of the United Kingdom, Ships sunk by German submarines in World War II, World War II shipwrecks in the Mediterranean Sea, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, 5,000 nmi (9,260 km; 5,750 mi) at 12 knots (22 km/h; 14 mph), This page was last edited on 22 December 2020, at 03:28. Survivors were rescued by the other British ships. (Redirected from Non Proliferation Experiment) There have been many extremely large explosions, accidental and intentional, caused by modern high explosives, boiling liquid expanding vapour explosions (BLEVEs), older explosives such as gunpowder, volatile petroleum -based fuels such as petrol, and other chemical reactions. The impact was right on the joints between several armour plates and drove them inwards and destroyed part of the hull behind them. [29][Note 4], Hipper's battlecruisers spotted the Battlecruiser Fleet to their west at 15:20, but Beatty's ships did not see the Germans to their east until 15:30. [47] On the evening of 18 August, the Grand Fleet put to sea in response to a message deciphered by Room 40 that indicated that the High Seas Fleet, minus II Squadron, would be leaving harbour that night. Jones refers to the 861 men listed in the casualty list published by the Times in 1942, Burt 2012, p. 85; Raven & Roberts, pp. Rear-Admiral Sir Hugh Evan-Thomas (private collection) with his beloved “Jutland Jack” Her end in the Mediterranean in the Second World War was as … In 4 minutes and 45 … During the 1920s and 1930s, the ship was assigned to the Atlantic, Mediterranean, and Home Fleets. This meant that they were some 4,000 yards (3,700 m) closer to the rapidly advancing High Sea Fleet. The ship was in the Mediterranean when the Second World War began in September 1939 and accidentally collided with and sank one of her escorting destroyers, HMS Duchess, on her voyage home three months later. HMS BARHAM EXPLOSION WHILE SINKING. 219–220; Raven & Roberts, p. 359; Shores, Cull & Malizia, pp. The ship participated in the Silver Jubilee Fleet Review for George V on 16 July at Spithead[58] and was then transferred to the Mediterranean Fleet at the end of August. Hamilton. She departed Scapa Flow that day, escorted by four destroyers,[68] and rendezvoused with the troop convoy en route to Gibraltar[69] where she arrived on 2 September. The moment when HMS Barham's magazine exploded after being torpedoed in the Mediterranean. Barham played a minor role in quelling the 1929 Palestine riots and the 1936–1939 Arab revolt in Palestine. A total of … [48], She was refitted at Cromarty between February and March 1917[47] and King George V inspected the ship on 22 June at Invergordon. [89] Due to the speed at which she sank, 862 officers and ratings were killed,[54][90] including two who died of their wounds after being rescued. The Grand Fleet sailed with 29 dreadnoughts and 6 battlecruisers while the Germans mustered 18 dreadnoughts and 2 battlecruisers. [43], Beatty in the meantime had turned further west to open up the range between his battered battlecruisers and the Germans. She became a private ship in January of that year and was refitted at Portsmouth Royal Dockyard in February–July. [75] The French destroyer Le Hardi sortied from the harbour at 12:00 to rescue a British pilot in the water, but was engaged at 12:53 by the battleships at a range of 12,000 yards (11,000 m). [54] Now under the command of Captain Hubert Monroe[53] and accompanied by the battleship Ramillies, she cruised along the coast of West Africa from December 1927 to February 1928. Other fragments from the second hit caused damage that allowed the water to spread even further. next. Captain C. E. Morgan commanding HMS Valiant described the final moments of the Battleship: The list became so pronounced that after only about 3 minutes from the time of the torpedoing the Barham's mainmast struck the surface of the sea, and seconds later we saw water pouring into her funnel. of November in 1941, the old British Battleship HMS Barham was struck by three torpedoes fired from U-331. Like most of the watch I had taken a mug of tea on to the upper deck to enjoy the sun and admire the view. "HMS Barham on her beam ends as the magazine explodes." The main conning tower was protected by 13 inches of armour. On 21 April, the Grand Fleet conducted a demonstration off Horns Reef to distract the Germans while the Russian Navy relaid its defensive minefields in the Baltic Sea. The hits on Seydlitz mostly opened up more holes that facilitated the flooding. She was hit by three torpedoes simultaneously. Within four (4) minutes she rolled over, blew up and sank with very heavy loss of life. It made such a difference from the longwinded (over 20 Articles) which were submitted by one Graeme Sorley who monopolised this site for weeks.I formerly lived in South Queensferry between the Wars and can remember the Barham anchored off Rosyth it was about 1936 as one of the ex-German Navy the Derflinger (? Another sweep began on 6 March, but had to be abandoned the following day as the weather grew too severe for the escorting destroyers. Only 2 and a half minutes passed from the torpedo impact until the ship rolled onto its side and the aft magazine exploded killing 862 out of its roughly 1260 man complement. The capsizing ship suddenly blows up in a huge explosion, only her bows remaining visible, steeply canted at the edge of the smoke pall. to aircraft and explosion caused expensive structural damage. The latter was succeeded by Captain Richard Horne on 1 October. One fragment ricocheted off the upper deck and through the side plating on the opposite side of the ship. Fragments from this hit caused flooding that spread throughout the bow, while the ship's speed caused water to enter directly through the hole in the side. The battleship and the other ships of Force F were tasked to ferry troops to Malta, before continuing on to Alexandria. MS of HMS Barham listing heavily to port, towards the camera - her secondary 6-inch guns already underwater. Shortly before the turn, one of his escorting light cruisers, Galatea spotted smoke on the horizon and continued on her course to investigate. During her abbreviated sea trials on 6 July 1916, Barham only reached a mean top speed of 23.91 knots (44.28 km/h; 27.52 mph). He was awarded the Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross that day. Shortly afterwards, she was deployed to Gibraltar for several months after the beginning of the Spanish Civil War in July. This image was created and shared by: Colin Sweett . She had a normal displacement of 32,590 long tons (33,110 t) and displaced 33,260 long tons (33,794 t) at deep load. She was powered by two sets of Brown-Curtis steam turbines, each driving two shafts, using steam from 24 Yarrow boilers. Queen Elizabeth was leading, followed by H.M.S. After Free French emissaries were either captured or driven off by the Vichy French, Cunningham ordered his ships to open fire. [36] His order only applied to his own forces; the 5th Battle Squadron continued south until after it passed Beatty heading northwestwards at 16:51. It was obvious to us on the Queen Elizabeth that the Barham was sinking fast, and I can remember that we were shouting to the men to jump. [92], It was not until the Admiralty admitted that Barham had been sunk and described the circumstances that Tiesenhausen knew that he had sunk her. [54] Captain Henry Horan assumed command on 28 July 1937, although he only remained in command until 22 April 1938 when he was relieved by Captain Algernon Willis. [45], Barham fired 337 fifteen-inch shells and 25 six-inch shells during the battle. The destroyer Hotspur rescued some 337 survivors, including Vice-Admiral Henry Pridham-Wippell and the pair who later died of their wounds, while the Australian destroyer Nizam reportedly rescued some 150 men. [54] Reinforced by the battleship Resolution and the aircraft carrier Ark Royal from Force H, Barham departed Gibraltar for Freetown, Sierra Leone, four days later. Debris was hurled into the air, and I saw one of the 15 inch gun turrets lifted up hundreds of feet. 101–102, 108–110, 115–116, 134–142, Campbell 1986, pp. The f… HMS 'Bulwark', Bulwark Class Battleship, built at Devonport Dockyard, England, and completed March 1902. [18] [19][Note 2] Barham cost a total of £2,470,113. [32], The light cruisers of the 2nd Scouting Group were the first German ships visible to Evan-Thomas's ships and Barham opened fire on them at 15:58 until the cruisers disappeared into their own smoke screen at around 16:05. Does anyone know why the magazine exploded? [8] Two years later, her anti-aircraft defences were upgraded when the original three-inch AA guns were replaced with a pair of QF four-inch (102 mm) Mk V AA guns between November 1924 and January 1925 and another pair of four-inch AA guns were added from October to November later that year. While covering the evacuation of Crete the following day, the ship was attacked by Junkers Ju 88 bombers from II./LG (Demonstration Wing) 1 and Heinkel He 111 bombers of II./KG (Bomber Wing) 26. Merlin Burrows have found and pin-pointed the exact location of the wreck of HMS Barham – a Queen Elizabeth-class battleship built for the Royal Navy in February 1913. The image is free to reuse for non-commercial purposes under the IWM Non Commercial Licence. Three minutes later, she sighted the topmasts of Vice-Admiral Reinhard Scheer's battleships, but did not report this for another five minutes. The British battleships then switched targets to bombard the harbour and Richelieu. [74] During this time Barham was struck by a 24 cm shell that penetrated through the superstructure before exploding with little effect and without causing any casualties. [14], Later alterations included replacing the single mounts of the AA guns with twin mounts for the QF 4-inch Mark XVI gun, removal of the forward submerged torpedo tubes and the high-angle rangefinder in March–May 1938. It proved to be worse than expected and Barham had to be repaired at Durban, South Africa, as she was unfit to make the trans-Atlantic crossing for repair in the United States. They hit Lützow, Derfflinger and Seydlitz three times each between 17:19 and about 18:05. Thank you again for the succinct Contribution. Barham was herself was struck twice during the "Run to the South": the first was a 28.3-centimetre (11 in) shell from von der Tann that failed to do any damage when it hit the waterline armour and the battlecruiser SMS Lützow fired a 30.5-centimetre (12 in) shell that detonated in the aft superstructure. It was difficult to imagine such a large ship sinking so quickly. The gives some indication of the speed of the fleet and of the stricken ship which had kept up even while she was sinking. details see EAGLES WAR by P. She participated in the Battle of Dakar in mid-1940, where she damaged a Vichy French battleship and was slightly damaged in return. 3) Could BARHAM have faced a scenario similar to INDEFATIGABLE, where an unseen low-order detonation of one magazine caused rapid flooding, followed by a high-order explosion that destroyed the ship? Duchess capsized and sank, with the loss of 124 of her crew. [54] On 14 October 1925, Captain Francis Marten relieved Hill, but he retained command only until 9 March 1926 when Captain Joseph Henley assumed command. A fourth thunderous explosion resulted, probably the magazine going up, disintegrating the Barham, taking 862 men with her in three minutes. By this time the 5th Battle Squadron was about seven point five nautical miles (13.9 km; 8.6 mi) northwest of Beatty. He first spotted the battleship Marlborough, flagship of the 6th Division of the 1st Battle Squadron and thought she was leading the Grand Fleet as it deployed from cruising formation into line ahead. After several minutes it became apparent that the squadron was not conforming to Beatty's other ships, but Evan-Thomas refused to change course until clear instructions had been received despite entreaties from the Barham's captain. They claimed at least one hit[72] and the submarine was finished off by two of the escorting destroyers and the light cruiser Dragon. From NavyPhotos.co.uk Go to the item's page. The German crew were apparently given a tremendous reception when the submarine returned to her base. [86] Repairs were completed six weeks later on 30 July and the ship returned to Alexandria in August where she resumed her role as flagship of the 1st Battle Squadron. She was present when the High Seas Fleet surrendered for internment on 21 November. 271, 275, 279–80, 284, 286–290, Campbell 1986, pp. The fleet sailed in concert with Rear Admiral Franz von Hipper's five battlecruisers and supporting cruisers and torpedo boats. In the event that you consider anything on this page to be in breach of the site's House Rules, please click here. [87] The following morning, the German submarine U-331, commanded by Oberleutnant zur See Hans-Diedrich von Tiesenhausen, detected the faint engine noises of the British ships and moved to intercept. In 4 minutes and 45 seconds a 35,000 ton battleship was lost and with her 868 officers and men. 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