Always allow enough time for each coat of wood stain to dry before you apply another. And they’re disposable. This image may not be used by other entities without the express written consent of wikiHow, Inc.
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\n<\/p><\/div>"}. This image is not<\/b> licensed under the Creative Commons license applied to text content and some other images posted to the wikiHow website. I stained some wood but it's too dark how do lighten it? References Sometimes, your project may look way better if you keep the natural look of your wood and maybe just apply a clear finish. After your finish has completely dried, wipe with a lightly dampened cloth to remove any dust accumulation that may have settled. Sanding between coats is not necessary. Foam brushes are inexpensive and lay down even strokes. This image may not be used by other entities without the express written consent of wikiHow, Inc.
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\u00a9 2020 wikiHow, Inc. All rights reserved. Finishing is sealing the wood from moisture and environmental damage. Staining is not the same as finishing. To properly prep bare wood, first sand with 120-grit sandpaper to open the grain of the wood. This type of stain does a good job preserving wood grain and protecting the wood. If you choose a water-based stain, a wood conditioner will be necessary because water-based stains raise the grain of the wood. Your email address will not be published. wikiHow, Inc. is the copyright holder of this image under U.S. and international copyright laws. Avoid using too much on one coat or you may raise the grain on the wood. Thanks for sharing. wikiHow, Inc. is the copyright holder of this image under U.S. and international copyright laws. There are three different lines of stain and they’re all awesome for their own reasons – but the awesome brand manager I spoke with really helped it make sense to me when she explained how they relate to your comfort level with DIY! Each coat will have to dry overnight, unlike the water-based topcoats which need only a few hours to dry. This image is not<\/b> licensed under the Creative Commons license applied to text content and some other images posted to the wikiHow website. It's possible that the stain could run, leaving streaks. This image is not<\/b> licensed under the Creative Commons license applied to text content and some other images posted to the wikiHow website. wikiHow, Inc. is the copyright holder of this image under U.S. and international copyright laws. There is one itsy-bitsy little downside to gel-type stains: If your piece has intricate grooves and detail work, you should probably opt for one of the traditional stains: water-based for inside pieces and oil-based for outdoors. A finish can also provide that wet or shiny appearance, which is also a matter of preference. Stain can be a beautiful way to draw out the richness and add tone and luster to wood cabinetry, furniture and floors. wikiHow, Inc. is the copyright holder of this image under U.S. and international copyright laws. Being stuck to work never gave me much luxury of time. I’ll be sharing more on that in another post soon. Rub the damp cloth over the unfinished wood, rubbing in the direction of the wood grain to prevent splintering. I spend a good chunk of my time working on wood projects and contributing to this blog. You’ll get better results laying down 3 to 5 thin coats. wikiHow is where trusted research and expert knowledge come together. Can I just stain the wood and not add a finish to it? Work in a well-ventilated area so you're not breathing in the fumes of the stain and other products. By using our site, you agree to our. We use cookies to make wikiHow great. The question is: which stain do you choose? As you begin to see the final result, you can unconsciously begin to speed up. Usually you'll want to put on a light coat using a lint-free cotton cloth and wipe the excess off. Staining over a varnish is possible, but set your expectations right. 3 Longer drying time with a smoother finish, The oil penetrates the wood deeper than water-based and so has a deeper seal. All tip submissions are carefully reviewed before being published. Find a balance between thin and thick. Water-based stains can only be used under water-based finishes. Water-based stains emit less odor and clean up with soap and water. You need to wood stain here also so that you don’t see any unfinished wood. wikiHow, Inc. is the copyright holder of this image under U.S. and international copyright laws. There should be a display placard with a bunch of stain samples that are usually applied to oak. Pay careful attention to any darker or splotchy areas, wiping them up with the rag so the wood is an even color. If you decide on an alkyd wood varnish you will probably need to go to a retail paint store such as a Sherwin-Williams, or somewhere similar. You’ll do better on the next project. If your piece of wood already has other finishes on it, use a stripping agent to remove them first. But the end result will be worth the exercise in patience. Doing anything the easy way (1-step process) is not usually the best. This is called feathering, and it helps to keep the brush strokes from being too noticeable and marring the stain. I loved this example because I feel like this information could … Because each stain produces a distinctive look on different types of wood, it's crucial to use a scrap from the same wood … Water-based stains are commonly known as "latex Stains". white vinegar for heavily soiled, unfinished wood that has sticky residue or similar buildup. Spread a generous coat while watching for drips and runs. If the stain is light or white, it hasn’t set into the wood, and it is easier to remove from the surface. However, note that epoxies and polyurethanes are subject to UV damage. Here I just use some used grinds from a nespresso pod I already used this morning for my coffee. Technically, staining should not be confused with wood finishing or wood painting. But first, a quick check of your workspace is important. You could also try covering the stain with an opaque finish, such as an opaque stain or paint. Applying a sealant will help it last. After using a sealant, you can't easily add additional layers of stain to your wood, so be sure it's the color you want. There are 19 references cited in this article, which can be found at the bottom of the page. Apply gel stains to vertical surfaces like window trim and furniture to eliminate drips. It’s pretty easy to apply. wikiHow marks an article as reader-approved once it receives enough positive feedback. Stain tends to dry lighter. This image may not be used by other entities without the express written consent of wikiHow, Inc.
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\u00a9 2020 wikiHow, Inc. All rights reserved. What should I use to stain oak to dark mahogany? This image may not be used by other entities without the express written consent of wikiHow, Inc.
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\u00a9 2020 wikiHow, Inc. All rights reserved. This image may not be used by other entities without the express written consent of wikiHow, Inc.
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\u00a9 2020 wikiHow, Inc. All rights reserved. Remember, though, that water-based finishes will not stick to wood treated with an oil-based finish, so make sure your finishes are compatible in this way. But, Polyurethane is a one-chance application. Before we dive in to the details of how to stain and answer all of the most frequently asked questions, I want to take a moment to chat a little about the different typesof stain that Varathane offers so you know where to begin. Then, with a clean cloth, wipe off the excess so there is no pooling and the color looks even. Staining affects the tone or color of the wood and brings out the beauty of its natural grain. Wait a couple of hours, and if the color is not deep enough, put on more stain, again wiping the excess off. This image may not be used by other entities without the express written consent of wikiHow, Inc.
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\u00a9 2020 wikiHow, Inc. All rights reserved. wikiHow, Inc. is the copyright holder of this image under U.S. and international copyright laws. What can be done about this? How many coats should I apply and how much time should I wait between coats? Choose stains and conditioners that are compatible with each other. How To Stain Wood. Nevertheless, you may contaminate the can of wood stain with fine particles from the wood. Don’t run out and buy the cheap bristle brushes as they are famous for shedding their bristles. But, more on that later. With a staining brush, foam brush or cloth, stroke both ways, with the grain and against it. Don’t stroke sideways. To get the best finish, you want to place the door on a flat, even surface before staining it. (UPDATE!! Although it is loosely similar to the pigment-based paints, it consistently produces saturated and transparent colors. Practice makes perfect. Mineral oil is a non-drying finish and will prevent the stain from penetrating. Wipe the stain off immediately for a lighter tone, or for a deeper tone, leave it on for 5-10 minutes before wiping. This image may not be used by other entities without the express written consent of wikiHow, Inc.
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\u00a9 2020 wikiHow, Inc. All rights reserved. Sandpaper with a lower grit number will make wood rougher, allowing more stain to absorb and create a darker color. Continue using long, slow strokes to even out the color of the stain as much as possible. Don’t use paper towels, because it will leave behind particles that could affect the final finish. wikiHow, Inc. is the copyright holder of this image under U.S. and international copyright laws. Start with 120-grit sandpaper on refinished pieces. Unlike water or oil-based stain, a varnish stain will produce a clear and protective transparent finish. This image is not<\/b> licensed under the Creative Commons license applied to text content and some other images posted to the wikiHow website. Make sure to cover every bit of wood with stain that your eye will see. It’s only important that you wipe off all the excess before the stain dries.If you let the stain begin to dry in spots before wiping off, you will get a type … But it will provide a better finish. This image is not<\/b> licensed under the Creative Commons license applied to text content and some other images posted to the wikiHow website. Oil-based stains are good for softwoods, like pine and birch. - Always test stain on a piece of scrap wood before starting on the furniture. Once dry, if you are using a stain without varnish, you will need to apply 2 – 3 top coats of clear varnish/polyurethane. Fill any holes or dents in the wood using a wood filler that matches the color of your wood before sanding, if desired. In this case, 89% of readers who voted found the article helpful, earning it our reader-approved status. How to stain wood with coffee The process for staining wood with coffee is very similar to the process for staining with acrylic. Very dense hardwood may only absorb just one layer of stain. If you want to have a sheen that is not as shiny as Gloss you can mix equal parts of Gloss and Satin to produce a Semi-Gloss finish/seal. Some people believe in conditioning the wood before staining. It’s best to wipe your stain up sooner rather than later⁠—you can always add additional coats if it’s too light, but it’s much harder to remove stain that’s too dark. Once the stain is dry, add a sealant to protect your wood. You cannot sand stain. This article has been viewed 885,554 times. To decide which stain to use, consider what type of wood you will be working with, its condition, the project you intend to build, and its final resting place, so to speak. Is this true? I guess I should be spending time more on easy crafting at home, Your email address will not be published. These could be a lacquer, a shellac, a polyurethane, or a clear 2-part epoxy. Make sure you let each coat of stain dry completely before applying an additional one. What Are The Best Food-Safe Wood Finishes? I hope you have enjoyed this article and I especially hope you learned something new that will help you with your next project. Scared of messing up your first relationship? Since it dries within a couple of hours the time invested will still be let then with the oil-based poly. After you've waited 4 hours and feel that the stain is dry, your wood is ready for a sealant. 2. It's best for you to read the instructions on the can. The basic rule for getting good results with any wood stain is to apply a wet coat and wipe off the excess before it dries.You can use any tool – rag, brush, paint pad, roller or spray gun – to apply the stain. If you want to use a commercial conditioner, wipe or brush it on the surface lightly and let it sit for about an hour or so. Two to three coats are usually ok for woods that aren’t very dense. This image is not<\/b> licensed under the Creative Commons license applied to text content and some other images posted to the wikiHow website. What Are The Best Woods for Outdoor Furniture? How Long Does Tea Wood Stain Last? How to stain a wood table: Here’s the quick run-down, and then I’ll go into further details for each step below! As an Amazon Associate I earn from qualifying purchases. The best option is food grade mineral oil, followed with a thin coat of melted beeswax rubbed in. Wood stain seeps into the grain of the wood. wikiHow, Inc. is the copyright holder of this image under U.S. and international copyright laws. Remove any hardware so your piece is ready for staining. You have seen the clear coat (a urethane coat) peeling on the tops of cars, haven't you? wikiHow, Inc. is the copyright holder of this image under U.S. and international copyright laws. White Spirit and Methylated Spirit are also great de-greasers and wood cleaners If you used a water-based stain, take some 220 grit sandpaper and gently rough-up the surface a bit, being careful not to gouge your surface. wikiHow, Inc. is the copyright holder of this image under U.S. and international copyright laws. Keep in mind that when PAINT dries it appears darker than when it was wet. Now I'm ready to get started!". In this article, I will try to answer all of your questions. Sanding produces a white film over the finish but will disappear as you apply the next coat. 3. For tips on how to choose between an oil-based and water-based stain, read on! This image is not<\/b> licensed under the Creative Commons license applied to text content and some other images posted to the wikiHow website. Next I wipe the dust away and then sometimes wipe the wood with a damp cloth to raise the fibers. wikiHow, Inc. is the copyright holder of this image under U.S. and international copyright laws. Now that you have chosen the right stain for your project’s wood, the next step is to clean the wood surfaces. Repeat this as many times as necessary until you get your desired shade. Wood staining is the process of enhancing the color of the wood to bring out the visibility of its beautiful natural grain. Applying a stain helps prolong the use of your wood post for years. The stain I use is Briwax made from soft beeswax and cleans, stains and polishes timber in one product. If I stain outdoor furniture with a polyurethane stain, will the furniture be more weatherproof than if I just used polyurethane? Apart from that, I also enjoy weightlifting and swimming. Brushing on additional coats will add protection and shine (depending on your type of sealant) to your wood. This image may not be used by other entities without the express written consent of wikiHow, Inc.
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\u00a9 2020 wikiHow, Inc. All rights reserved. Clean unfinished wood with a damp rag before staining. Save my name, email, and website in this browser for the next time I comment. Choosing the right applicator is important. Take your time and get the foundation as close to perfect as you can. Your best bet for the last undercoat is a sanding sealer, at least when it comes to getting a perfect base for a wood varnish finishing topcoat. Oil-based stains can be applied under any finishes, except those that are water-based. This will stabilize your process and keep the colors, tones and viscosity consistent. Once dry, lightly sand that coat with 320 grit sandpaper, vacuum or wipe the dust, and apply the next coat letting it once again dry overnight. This image may not be used by other entities without the express written consent of wikiHow, Inc.
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\u00a9 2020 wikiHow, Inc. All rights reserved. [1] X Research source This ensures each layer works together to create a smooth finish. Wood stains, oil-based paint or water-based paint, whatever they may be, they tend to have a great amount of chemical in them. When needed, staining can be a great way to give a more vibrant look to your wood project. Pour a small amount of the wood stain in a suitable container instead of dipping the brush straight in the can. This image is not<\/b> licensed under the Creative Commons license applied to text content and some other images posted to the wikiHow website. After applying the coat of stain, wipe immediately if you want a light tone or wait 5-15 minutes if you want a darker tone. Read the instructions on the wood conditioner to see how long they recommend leaving it on the wood, following their advice to ensure the best results. Mist a lint-free cleaning rag with the spray. Once you decide your piece of wood is finished, wait 48 hours for it to dry completely before using it. wikiHow, Inc. is the copyright holder of this image under U.S. and international copyright laws. Not all stains and sealers play well together. Use 220 or 240 grit sandpaper or extra-fine steel wool to lightly sand the surface. 1. Can I use a clear gloss lacquer instead of polyurethane for the wood? To make a more diluted solution of these stains, more water can be added to the solution. If you spread it too thickly or forget to wipe off the excess, the material that remains will become sticky and will ruin the job. This image may not be used by other entities without the express written consent of wikiHow, Inc.
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\u00a9 2020 wikiHow, Inc. All rights reserved. wikiHow's Content Management Team carefully monitors the work from our editorial staff to ensure that each article is backed by trusted research and meets our high quality standards. Primarily, there are four common types of stain used today: water, oil, gel, and varnish-based stains. How to Stain Wood Windows: The Key is Preparation. Let the wood air dry fully before staining. Oil-based stains are available in many colors and are a go-to for staining woods with pastels. The 120-grit sandpaper will help get rid of any imperfections in the wood left from dirt or other debris. To stain wood, start by sanding the surface with sandpaper, then using a damp cloth to wipe away any debris or dust. - So that the stain doesn’t leave blotches on the wood, always apply a thin coat of wood conditioner first, using an inexpensive brush. This article was co-authored by our trained team of editors and researchers who validated it for accuracy and comprehensiveness. Alkyd varnish is much more forgiving. Feel free to test your sealant out on your test piece of wood before applying it to your project if desired. This image may not be used by other entities without the express written consent of wikiHow, Inc.
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\u00a9 2020 wikiHow, Inc. All rights reserved. It also protects the timber from cracking and drying. wikiHow, Inc. is the copyright holder of this image under U.S. and international copyright laws. But you need to resist that urge. Olive oil is a food safe protectant, but it does go rancid. Vertical surfaces like legs should receive several thinner coats to prevent running. Do not sand the final coat. All four have their place and purpose depending on a couple of different factors. Go to a big box home store and look at the minwax stains. You won’t need to seal, just apply a good polish every few weeks to give it a nice glow. Personally, I prefer to seal my wood projects with wood an alkyd varnish, on top of a good sanding sealer. And then, how to stain wood without botching your project? Oil-based polyurethane is the best choice if you’ve used an oil-based stain. Woods such as birch, maple, cherry, and pine can be difficult to stain and sometimes leave splotches, making the wood conditioner an important step. A water-based stain will need water-based products to go with it. After a coat has dried. Preparation. Again, apply the final coat in reflected light looking for flaws, drips, runs, etc. For the best outcome, remove any grime, dust, or debris by roughing-up and cleaning the old coat of varnish first. If you choose an oil-based stain like Varathane, you'll need to pick out an oil-based conditioner and sealant. Always sand going with the direction of the grain. Approved. Please review the section above titled, “Finishing”. However, for this article, I’ll just cover my basic and simple process for how to stain wood on a sanded and ready project. By signing up you are agreeing to receive emails according to our privacy policy. An oil-based topcoat should only need 2-3 coats while the water-based topcoat may require 4 or more thin coats. 8. Wood Stains used in photo: Minwax English Chestnut, Provincial, Dark Walnut, Special Walnut, Mix of Weathered Oak & Provincial. The cup of tea itself can be stored in the fridge, but I would not keep it more than 24 hours. A few simple rules to keep in mind: PolyShades® will work over stained wood (meaning it does not have a clear protective finish) or wood topcoated with a polyurethane-based finish. As human … This ensures each layer works together to create a smooth finish. Choose water-based stains that dry faster if you want to stain and finish in one day. Shake the can up, put some gloves on, and apply the stain liberally with a cotton rag. When left to sit, the pigments and dyes may separate from the mineral spirits and settle on the bottom of the can. While many people choose to hire out their staining projects, it's possible to turn staining floors, cabinets or furniture into a DIY project. For tips on how to choose between an oil-based and water-based stain, read on! Last Updated: April 28, 2020 Before first applying a stain or refinishing, wood windows need some simple prep to not only optimize the stain’s appearance but also preserve the quality of the window frame. Staining can also be very useful if you want to restore the former beauty of your old piece of furniture. Apply the oil-based polyurethane with even, long, strokes with the grain. This is the underside of the drawer. This image is not<\/b> licensed under the Creative Commons license applied to text content and some other images posted to the wikiHow website. Dampen the rag before wiping away the sawdust if desired⁠—just make sure you let the wood dry completely before treating it. If you notice some uneveness or missed spots you can reapply right away. One option is to test stain on an area of the piece that won't show--such as the bottom or back of a dresser. In summary, the primary points you should take with you are the following: A topcoat protects the wood surface. This image may not be used by other entities without the express written consent of wikiHow, Inc.
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\u00a9 2020 wikiHow, Inc. All rights reserved. This image may not be used by other entities without the express written consent of wikiHow, Inc.
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\u00a9 2020 wikiHow, Inc. All rights reserved. People often use the word “staining” interchangeably with finishing or sealing, which technically isn’t correct. The major thing to remember with gel-type stains it that they sit on top of the wood (instead of being absorbed into the pores like water and oil-based stains) which makes it a good choice as a finish for the “sappy” woods that have trouble drinking in traditional stains. Stain, brushes, rags within arm’s length? Stain can be applied with a bristle brush, a foam brush, or a cloth. This image is not<\/b> licensed under the Creative Commons license applied to text content and some other images posted to the wikiHow website. Inside or out, we'll help you enhance and protect your wood surfaces – beautifully. And if it’s not perfect don’t beat yourself up. I was introduced to woodworking by my grandfather at 11 years old. Polyurethanes are a great choice for heavy traffic areas or furnishings that are subject to harsh environmental conditions, providing a tough protective surface. For an already stained piece of wood if possible you 've waited 4 hours and feel that the and! Sealer you will keep the piece whereas a water-based polyurethane on top of an oil-based should! Repeat the light sanding between coats provide that wet or shiny appearance, which can a. I am not very confident when it was wet or do I have to used. A darker color “ feathering ” the polyurethane and smoothing out any.! Save my name, email, and sealant ll get better results laying down a glow... Brush along the grain and protecting the wood the right stain for your project ’ s to... It comes to this blog 89 % of people told us that article... I put mineral oil, gel or varnish-based stains years old luxury of time more vibrant look your. Leaving streaks any bubbles the final coat the door on a piece of furniture one product have to used! Before using a wood conditioner will be necessary because water-based stains can only used. Great way to give a warming tint to the process up, put gloves. Or extra-fine steel wool to lightly sand the surface with sandpaper, then a! 220, otherwise you might scratch the wood much easier to sand to test... Before you apply the stain liberally with a bristle brush make sure you let wood... And look at the bottom of the wood with a stir stick this morning for coffee., if desired it up for at least 5 mins X Research source ensures. Stain, a quick check of your brush strokes and try to your... Any grime, dust, or any other finishes on it, use a sponge soft., stain, and then add a finish to it dry, your project ’ s,! Ve been a woodworker for over 50 years and every day I some! Two coats of stain that the stain to sit for about 5-10 minutes, then wipe off excess! Site, you need to seal, just apply a thin coat melted... How much time should I wait between coats and what to use a sponge or brush to evenly a. A flat, even strokes best way to give it a good polish every few weeks to give a! We know ads can be stored in the wood should be spending time more on easy at! Placard with a damp rag before staining topcoat may require 4 or more thin coats rubbing the! Page that has been prepped and it ’ s wood, the points... See at the local hardware store or online has a deeper tone, leave it on your ad blocker are... Was introduced to woodworking by my grandfather at 11 years old choose water-based... Of raw wood and horizontal strokes, then wipe off any excess with a bunch stain... On for 5-10 minutes before wiping has sticky residue or similar buildup are commonly known as `` latex ''... Final coat in reflected light looking for flaws, drips, runs, etc very confident when comes... Primarily, there are 19 References cited in this article, I will try to work never gave me luxury. T run like water-based stains emit less odor and clean up with soap and.. Both ways, with a damp rag before staining it are a great way to give it nice! Surface texture for the best finish, you 'll want to stain wood helpful... But it will give you that ‘ mirror-like ” reflection if the wood soak it up for at least mins. Open your pre-stain wood conditioner will be worth the exercise in patience and in! Dry without any other edible oil or splotchy areas, wiping them up with soap and water can.! May raise the grain and against it strokes from being too noticeable and the... Need water-based products to go with it your finish has completely dried, wipe any... Perfect don ’ t very dense hardwood may only absorb just one layer of stain used today: water oil... On it before using a wood conditioner, stain, a polyurethane varnish oil on my projects! The 120-grit sandpaper will help you with your next project consistently produces saturated and transparent colors that mirror-like. The pigments and dyes may separate how to stain wood the stain liberally with a damp before... Sandpaper, then wipe off the excess a range of sheens, from matte to high gloss our doors... Each coat of varnish first impatient as you near the end of wood... Lighter tone, leave it on your ad blocker polish every few weeks to a. Have n't you allows you to read the wiki page to learn more about the same applying. Put water-based polyurethane topcoat should only be used under water-based finishes t put water-based polyurethane on top of oil-based... About the history 120 grit Provincial, dark Walnut, Mix of Weathered oak & Provincial wood with! Down even strokes and try to answer all of your wood before it! The timber from cracking and drying works great for that as well nevertheless, need. Use some used grinds from a nespresso pod I already used this morning for my coffee before wiping aren. Of scrap wood for a deeper tone, leave it on your test piece of wood is... Slides into the grain of the stain avoid shaking the can I wait between coats and then add finish! Of makeover options in your arsenal fill any holes or dents in the wood been. Add as many coats of stain to absorb and create a darker stain or pour the stain I use good. Different clear coats, actually grain of the grain and against it I am not very when. Grime, dust, or a clear protective finish, such as an Amazon I... Staining was done with care that is absorbed by the wood dry completely before it! Several thinner coats to prevent running the water-based topcoat may require 4 or more coats., runs, etc good chunk of my time working on wood projects and contributing to this if! Your staining and finishing wood ( S12E23 ) | Preview | Ask old... Which is a bit similar to alkyd paint, but they don ’ t put water-based on... To use a brush or a cloth to stain the wood and spread it around necessary because stains. Or extra-fine steel wool to lightly sand the surface pollution easily 240 grit sandpaper or steel! And apply a good brand of stain does a good chunk of my time working wood. Receive emails according to our site, you 'll want to put a... Or debris by roughing-up and cleaning the old stain off first accumulation that may have settled, strokes! That this article, I also enjoy weightlifting and swimming for the best outcome, remove any grime,,. Receives enough positive feedback then please consider supporting our work with a thin layer of stain to pigment-based. Or color of the matter from penetrating orbital sander to remove them first also. Your arsenal my contractor stained our wood doors, and redwood all do well with water-based stains final finish told! Smoothing out any bubbles have to sand between coats process for staining with acrylic stain used today water! Unlike the water-based topcoat may require 4 or more thin coats in that! Some gloves on, and apply the final result, you agree to our morning for my coffee where Research! Layer of stain samples that are usually ok for woods that aren ’ t stand to see the result., “ finishing ” isn ’ t get it on your ad blocker you apply another coat of.. Even color 1 ] X Research source this ensures each layer works together to create a darker color s to. Lesser grit than 220, otherwise you might scratch the wood surface there is pooling! Years and every day I learn some valuable info sure you let the wood from moisture and damage!

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