Now, who was a better emperor? "Religion of God"), known during its time as Tawḥīd-i-IlāhÄ« ("Divine Monotheism", lit: "Oneness of God") or Divine Faith was a syncretic religion propounded by the Mughal emperor Akbar in 1582, intending to merge some of the elements of the religions of his empire, and thereby reconcile the differences that divided his subjects. Akbar was certainly influenced by that spirit of his age. These revolts and wars, during the reign of Aurangzeb, destroyed the peace, unity, prosperity and military power of the Empire. He took these measures only during the course of wars in order to inspire his followers. It led to several conflicts and wars in different parts of the country. He desired that his subjects who belonged to different faiths should learn to live with cooperation and tolerance with each other. — Rajput policy. were also invited at the court. Akbar was deeply influenced by the principle of non-violence of Jainism. Sufis, Shias, Christians, Zoroastrians, Hindus and Jains. Thus, Akbar provided equal protection to all religions and the state made no distinction between its subjects in any field on ground of religion. TOS4. He even gave Jagirs to temples. Akbar never disrespected either the Koran or Prophet Mohammed, nor he prohibited celebrations of Muslim festivals. Rather, he befriended the Rajputs and attempted for religious and cultural harmony among his subjects. They were promised money, high offices, and freedom from punishment in case they agreed to accept Islam. He never forgot this aim. He believed in the unity of God. He, therefore, remained liberal in its propagation. He was a wise, practical and a shrewd diplomat. Therefore, the theory of kingship of Aurangzeb was Islamic theory of kingship. The Hindus were not burdened by additional taxation and received services in the state according to merit. He prohibited cultivation of Bhang, stopped drinking alcohol and gambling, tried to check the practice of Sati, ordered prostitutes either to leave his empire or get married and also stopped celebrating the festivals like Holi, Diwali, Basant, etc. Also, his Deccan policy was a … The Christian missionaries failed to influence Akbar in any way, yet, they were permitted to establish churches at Cambay, Lahore, Hugli and Agra. Indeed, he set himself the vain task of becoming ‘Alamgir’ or ‘world grasper’ and was content to be ‘Zinda Pir’ or ‘living saint’ to his orthodox Muslim contemporaries. The Satnamis revolted in the districts of Narnaul and Mewat. He attempted to befriend them so as to convert them as loyal servants of the throne. It never meant that Akbar, in any way, asserted Godhood for himself. No social distinction was to be observed among the people on the basis of differences of their religion and everybody was allowed to practise his social traditions and personal values. But, these instances are examples of his occasional frenzy. Because of its influence Akbar started respecting Sun and fire. Dr A.L. Thus, Dr Sharma is nearer the truth. This website includes study notes, research papers, essays, articles and other allied information submitted by visitors like YOU. On the contrary, according to Abul Fazl, he was hesitant to accept new members within the order. It resulted in a serious revolt in Bengal and Bihar in 1581-82 A.D. and Mirza Hakim, Akbar’s step-brother invaded India in expectation of getting success. Akbar freed the majority of his subjects from the tyranny of the minority and got the credit of being called as the national king. Learn how your comment data is processed. . The Mughal Deccan policy started from Akbar’s period as Babur and Humayun were only concerned with the consolidation of North India which was a logical step.Akbar’s movements into the Deccan began in 1591 as he sent diplomatic missions to the Deccan states asking them to accept nominal sovereignty of the Mughal state which they refused. His policy was based on the principle of Suleh-i-kul (universal peace). In the beginning of his reign, therefore, he abolished slave- trade in 1562 A.D., pilgrim-tax from the Hindus in 1563 A.D. and the Jizya in 1564 A.D. Akbar was keen to know the truth of religion. It was Akbar, a believer in peace with all, that was a good Muslim in the true sense of the word.”. By coming in their contact, Akbar developed faith in the Hindu principles of Karma and transmigration of soul. (iii) They were expected to give a party on their birthday and to practise charity. Lane-Poole has commented- “The flame of religious zeal blazed as hotly in his soul when he lay dying among the ruins of his Grand Army of the Deccan, an old man on the verge of ninety years of age, as when, in the same fatal province, but then a youth in the springtime of life, he had thrown off the purple of Viceregal state and adopted the mean garb of a mendicant fakir.”. These conflicting forces took sides of princes, opposed to each other, in the war of succession. However, there are certain instances which prove that, at times, Jahangir favoured Islam. Only a small minority of his subjects was dissatisfied with it. The same was done in the territories of feudatory Hindu kings. Polity Bharat Ka Samvidhan: Ek Parichaya: Ek Parichaya (Hindi), Sansar डेली करंट अफेयर्स, 30 November 2020 - Sansar Lochan, Life of Basava and Shakti Vishishtadvaita Philosophy, Causes of the Downfall of the Mughal Empire, Reforms of Alauddin Khilji : Administrative, Military, Revenue & Economic, Town Planning of Indus Valley Civilization : Salient Features, Lord Curzon : Reforms and the administrative measures, Lord Ripon (1880-1884) – A well-meaning Governor-General, Itolizumab (rDNA origin) – A Monoclonal Antibody | UPSC, Know about Hagia Sophia Controversy | UPSC, Administration of Lord Lytton (1876-1880). In 1597, the combined Deccan force of Bijapur, Golconda and Ahmadnagar launched an offensive against the Mughals at Sonpat. He had agreed to propagate Shia sect among his subjects when he had entered into a treaty with Shah Ismail of Persia. It was opened for Sunni Muslims initially and was opened to all religions viz. However the fall of Ahmadnagar didn’t resolve Akbar’s problems in the Deccan. Srivastava has also described Aurangzeb as a bigot. The majority of his subjects welcomed his policy and Akbar received loyalty from them. He destroyed only those temples which were raised at the sites of mosques. The policy of Akbar was based on equality of all religions, respect to all of them and faith in truth. To some extent, the religious and Deccan policies of Aurangazeb contributed to its decline. His career in India began in Punjab where saints like Guru Nanak had preached equality of Islam and Hinduism. Towards Hindus, of course, he became illiberal during the course of wars and even destroyed Hindu temples, yet he adopted no measure against them in times of peace. But the Marathas fought back to gain the independence of their kingdom. … Religious synthesis was displayed in Akbar’s religious policy of appeasement and the Din-E-ILahi. Aurangzeb’s greatest weakness was that he regarded his own religion as the only true one and tried to convert all others to his faith. We ought, therefore, to bring them all into one, but in such fashion that they should be one and with the great advantage of not losing what is good in any one religion, while gaining whatever is better in another. Sharma has commented- “These were not the acts of a righteous ruler or a constructive statesman, but the outbursts of fanaticism, unworthy of the great genius that Aurangzeb undoubtedly possessed in all other respects.” Dr A.L. The phase of the re-imposition of jizya was a period of growing political and economic difficulties for Aurangzeb, with internal unrest of Jats, Satnamis and Sikhs; political oppression of Afghans and Marathas; climaxed by rebellion on the part of the old, established allies, the Rathors of Marwar; and foreign threat i.e. To the Muslim as to the Hindu, it heralded the dawn of a new era, to the Muslim with the birth of the promised Mahdi, to the Hindu with the realization of the all-absorbing love of God.”. Akbar personally observed certain practices. were patronized at his court. Kavindra Acharya Sarasvati, Sundar Das, Chintamani, etc. Two of his sons were killed in fighting and two others were buried alive in the wall. Aurangzeb meant no harm to the Hindus. He says that in fact it was Babur who started the policy of religious tolerance in India and emphasized on cultural integration through the administration. His abolition of pilgrim-tax and the Jizya, construction of the Ibadat Khana etc. Aurangzeb, the last Great Mughal emperor had died and left his Empire in chaos. But Aurangzeb was a bigot. The Ibadat Khana was opened for all religious leaders in the later period. when he felt unhappy with them then there remains no reason to charge him for fanaticism against the Sikhs, the Hindus, the Jains or the Christians. Drinking was prohibited. The religious debates of Ibadat Khana did play role in the development of religious views of Akbar. Srivastava contends that the majority of contemporary historians described that the policy of Aurangzeb was that of intolerance. Results of the religious policy of Aurangzeb: The religious fanaticism of Aurangzeb overshadowed his virtues. Therefore, it would be wrong to conclude that by taking over the right of one of his own officers to himself, Akbar had desired to become Pope or the religious head. Religious Policy of the Mughal Emperors | Indian History. The Hindus were turned out of services of the revenue department and no Hindu was given a high post in the army. Sarkar has also commented: “In Hindustan the administration rapidly deteriorated, peace, prosperity and the arts decreased, and the entire Indian civilisation fell backwards. No part of this website contents may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form or any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, without prior permission of Sansar Lochan, NCERT और NIOS की किताबों को खरीदें या उन्हें PDF के रूप में डाउनलोड करने के लिए क्लिक करें >, Deccan policy under Akbar - Short Notes for UPSC. Dasturji Meharji, scholar of Persia was also invited by him who developed Akbar’s interest in the Parsi religion. The war-captives were converted to Islam, culprits who accepted Islam were left free, Hindu women were forced to accept Islam before their marriage to Muslims and those who disrespected either Koran or Prophet Mohammad were punished by death. If prepared well, the subject can help candidates score well in GS Paper I also. Why does America want to back out of Open Skies Treaty. By this Khutba, Akbar simply took over the right to decide the cases of dispute regarding principles of Islam. Privacy Policy3. The Sikh founder, Guru Nanak (1469–1539), was roughly a contemporary of the founder of Mughal fortunes in India, Bābur, and belonged to the Khatri community of scribes and traders. The Mughal Deccan policy started from Akbar’s period as Babur and Humayun were only concerned with the consolidation of North India which was a logical step.Akbar’s movements into the Deccan began in 1591 as he sent diplomatic missions to the Deccan states asking them to accept nominal sovereignty of the Mughal state which they refused. He had rebuked prince Aurangzeb because of his ill-treatment of the Rajputs. Reviewing the acts of religious intolerance of Aurangzeb, Dr S.R. Theoretically it was the creation of the Emperor. In 1595, after the death of Burhan Nizam Shah there was a civil war in Ahmadnagar with various claimants to the throne. Besides, the attitude of Akbar was national. Jain scholars like Hira Vijay Suri, Jinchandra Suri, Vijaysen, Shantichandra etc. The Jats succeeded in establishing the independent state of Bharatpur after the death of Aurangzeb. Growth of a Composite Culture during Mughal Era. Aurangzeb failed not only in his objective, he also ruined his empire. At this state of weakness, taking advantage of the situation Akbar decided to attack Ahmadnagar in 1596 under the leadership of Abdur Rahim Khan-i-Khanan.Abu’l Fazl explains this attack in the context of how all of Hindustan must be brought under the liberal and benevolent rule of Akbar. . Jahangir and Shah Jahan pursued the same religious policy in principle though sometimes differing in details. On the contrary, he abolished them all. It is not possible that he could not realise the adverse results of his policy. (iv) They had to abstain from eating meat as far as possible. “The sixteenth century is a century of religious revival in the history of the world. The dominant note of this awakening was love and liberalism— love that united man to God and therefore to his brother man, and liberalism, born of this love that levelled down the barriers of caste and creed, and took its stand on the bed-rock of human existence and essence of all religions— Universal Brotherhood. Ralph Fitch (a British traveler) had written about Patna (Bihar) as, “Here the women bedecked with silver and copper that it is strange to see, they use no shoes by reason of the rings of silver and copper they wear on their toes." Yet, the revolt could not be subdued. Amid confused fighting the role of Khan-i-Khanan, who was the Mughal commander in the Deccan, was crucial. His reversal of Akbar’s policy of religious toleration resulted in weakening the entire structure of the Mughal empire. It has also been opined that apart from his individual religious views, Aurangzeb was forced by circumstances to pursue the policy of religious orthodoxy. Its result was that the Sikhs became a powerful force in the politics of Punjab during the very life-time of the Guru. Aurangzeb completely reversed the religious policy of Akbar. Aurangzeb reacted to these threats by emphasizing Islam as the only bond of unity in the highly segmented ruling class. So Manifest aims to convert this aspiration into reality and give sufficient content for this … At the time, the rise of Malik Ambar, a noble in the Ahmadnagar court occurred who tried to recover Berar and Balaghat. Shah Jahan permitted repairs of the temple of Chintamani at Ahmedabad and prohibited cow-slaughter in Cambay at the request of its citizens. He had faith in God and observed principles of Islam in a normal way. This stage is officially known as the Civil Services (Preliminary) exam but in common parlance, aspirants refer to it as UPSC Prelims or IAS Prelims. Kabul and Qandhar were the twin gateways of India's trade with Central Asia. India - India - The Sikhs in the Punjab: The origins of the Sikhs, a religious group initially formed as a sect within the larger Hindu community, lie in the Punjab in the 15th century. And, when we find that he punished even Muslim preachers like Shaikh Rahim, Qazi Nurulla, Shaikh Ahmad Sarhindi, etc. Indirectly, it induced long conflict between the Mughuls against the Rajputs and the Marathas. From the discussion above given, it is clear that the Mughals succeeded in maintaining a controlled frontier in the north-west, based on the Hindukush, on the one side, and the Kabul-Ghazni line, on the other. In no way Akbar felt displeased with Raja Bhagwan Das and Raja Man Singh who had refused to become its members. The sacrifice of these simply meant that the Emperor was the sole arbiter of making use of the thing that was surrendered to him. Some revolts of Muslims in beginning of his reign convinced him of the necessity of finding loyal allies elsewhere. Religious policy of the Mughul emperors, from Babur to Aurangzeb, has provided an ideal for the ruling class of India, viz., the ruling class of India should pursue a policy of religious toleration and equality. 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