Some hospitals, proprietary schools, vocational or technical colleges, and community colleges offer formal education programs. A doctorate is needed to become a laboratory director, although federal regulation allows directors of moderate-complexity laboratories to have either a master’s degree or a bachelor’s degree combined with the appropriate amount of training and experience. Technicians may establish and maintain patient profiles, prepare insurance claim forms, and stock and take inventory of both prescription and over-the-counter medications. Employment Trends Employment of psychologists is expected to grow about as fast as the average for all occupations through 2008. Personnel Needs It is projected that the population 65 years and older will increase by 2 percent per year by 2020, compared to an increase of less than 1 percent per year for younger persons. These positions require one or two years of graduate education, leading in most instances to a master’s degree or a certificate. Their purpose is to help the individual who is maladjusted to learn new and better habits of behavior so as to find a more satisfactory way of living. They are taught how to operate complex equipment themselves, with several visits a month from respiratory thera- RESPIRATORY CARE PRACTITIONERS 269 pists to inspect or clean the equipment and ensure its proper use. For information on occupations not covered in the Handbook, consult directories in your library’s reference section to find the names of potential sources. Because employers rely on the Association of Medical Illustrators to set paraprofessional standards and announce open positions through its organization, membership in this association is useful. An update on the continuing evolution of medicine, health problems, and health care moving into the twenty-first century. With the advent of Medicare and Medicaid came federal stipulations governing eligibility. Biological photographers may also come in contact with harmful chemicals, strong odors, and contagious diseases when carrying out assignments. New animal caretakers working in laboratories begin by providing basic care to laboratory animals. Well, that's no good. With additional training, they can work with new equipment such as is used in open-heart surgery. For instance, some work with patients who have just had surgery; others specialize in the care of acutely ill children, trauma victims, or cancer patients. Employment Opportunities Most recently, human service workers and assistants held about 271,000 jobs. Experienced attendants may provide basic animal health care, as well as bathe animals, trim nails, and attend to other grooming needs. About one radiologic technologist in five worked part-time. Internet: http://www.aswb. Health personnel need to become business-oriented. These effective, though simple, procedures were a great boon to hospital growth, as the public began to see hospitals as a safe, effective place to go when they were ill. Certification and registration as a Registered Music Therapist (RMT) makes available many opportunities for employment. The growing popularity of employee assistance programs also is expected to spur demand for private practitioners, some of whom will provide social work services to corporations on a contractual basis. Observations such as these provide the basis for the therapist’s periodic review of each patient’s activity program. Laboratory animal caretakers work in research facilities and assist with the care of a wide range of animals, including mice, rats, sheep, pigs, cattle, dogs, cats, monkeys, birds, fish, and frogs. High school students interested in a career in medical assisting should take typing, data processing, computer technology, and bookkeeping. Many spend their time in the field visiting clients. See Earnings/salaries Sanitarians, 411 School health educators description of work, 430– 431 education requirements, 431 employment opportunities, 431– 432 School psychologists, 252 School social workers, 233 Scientific writers. It is very much appreciated. Facts-on-File. Many nursing homes are understaffed, resulting in a heavy workload for nursing home nurses. 2. It is good to use when your qualifications are more impressive than your education and employment history. degree; 19 teach osteopathic medicine and aware a Doctor of Osteopathic Medicine (D.O.) Remarkable strides have occurred in the development of imaging equipment that does not involve the use of radiation, thereby reducing the risks of adverse side effects. 440 HEALTH-RELATED PROFESSIONS Some veterinarians are in regulatory medicine or public health. The middle 50 percent earned between $21,780 and $36,070 per year. Educational and Legal Requirements The educational minimum for entry into this work is a bachelor’s degree in athletic training, but an increasing number of candidates have graduate training. Work Environment Most dietitians work 40 hours per week. For details and specific discount information, contact the special sales department at Jones and Bartlett via the above contact information or send an email to [email protected] Copyright © 2002, 1998, 1995, 1990 by Jones and Bartlett Publishers, Inc. All rights reserved. Phone: (800) 553-6847. There is a great deal of stability in the dental hygiene field; most hygienists have an average of more than six years in their current practice. Veterinarians working in research use a full range of sophisticated laboratory equipment. Other personal qualifications that mark the true professional in any discipline may be applied in this occupation as well. Newly graduated recreational therapists generally begin as staff therapists. All states and the District of Columbia have licensing, certification, or registration requirements regarding social work practice and the use of professional titles. The incidence of alcohol and drug dependency is also growing. Many HMOs will undoubtedly go bankrupt, jeopardizing the health insurance coverage of millions of middle-class citizens. However, with escalating medical costs, payments for services have become prospective, which means that the rates for reimbursement to health care providers are standardized under federal guidelines. Travel can be part of the job and is a necessity for trainers who work with a professional team, which may be away from home for long periods of time. 166 HEALTH PROFESSIONS INVOLVING PATIENT CARE State and local government programs and schools, colleges, and universities provide about one job in six. See Educators/teachers Technical writers. In the poverty areas of Chicago, there were 26 physicians for 100,000 residents, while in its more affluent areas there were 210 physicians for every 100,000 people. Experience and education are listed in order of importance. Earnings Median annual earnings of veterinarians were $60,910, according to the latest statistics. About one-third of PAs provide health care to communities having fewer than 50,000 residents and where physicians may be in limited supply. Careful and complete documentation is required for reimbursement by insurance companies and Medicare. Link Drive. Collected rent, maintained grounds and buildings, planned social events, and assisted tenants. A résumé should contain the following information. Consultant dietitians work under contract with health care facilities or in their own private practices. Paraoptometrics Work Description The optometrist’s role in recent years has been refined by the addition of auxiliary personnel in clinical practice. I am confident I can be a valuable addition to your marketing staff and would appreciate the opportunity to meet with you within the next few days. They sell to community pharmacies and hospitals and inform physicians about new drugs. Especially rapid growth is projected for the population aged 85 and older, a group that suffers a high incidence of disabling conditions such as arthritis or stroke. Increasingly, however, medical, social, and behavioral experts are coming together to work with the whole person, not just mind or body. This trusted text offers a comprehensive, yet highly accessible survey of both soft skills and basic clinical skills for those entering health care training programs or considering a career in health care. Such rotations often lead to permanent employment. Sales Representative Displayed, ordered, and sold sportswear fashions for the Valley Country Club members. Another reason for the growth of community services is the fact that most people and their families prefer to avoid institutionalization whenever possible. $19,901/yr. Clinical laboratory testing plays a crucial role in the detection, diagnosis, and treatment of disease. Brazil, The health professions, i.e., persons engaged in teaching, research, administration, and/or testing of students and pr, Introduction to the Thermodynamics of Materials Fourth Edition As a result, nursing home administrators are involved in detailed management decisions much more than hospital administrators in all but the smallest hospitals. 326 HEALTH PROFESSIONS INVOLVING PATIENT CARE Additional Information For additional information on a career as a surgical technologist and a list of CAAHEP-accredited programs, contact: • Association of Surgical Technologists, 7108-C South Alton Way, Englewood, CO 80112. Health education has a place all the way from nursery school and kindergarten through high school and on into college, because it deals with day-to-day living. The third program focuses on in-depth animal care and good business procedures. Although employment in corrections departments is growing, employment of social and human service workers and assistants is not expected to grow as rapidly as employment of other corrections personnel, such as guards or corrections officers. Medical record technicians who work at video display terminals for prolonged periods may experience eyestrain and musculoskeletal pain. Educational and Legal Requirements Of the states that regulate licensing (45 for speech-language pathologists and 47 for audiologists), almost all require a master’s degree or equivalent. Most 442 HEALTH-RELATED PROFESSIONS veterinary medical colleges also require core courses, including some in English or literature, the social sciences, and the humanities. $62,260/yr. Successful pharmacy technicians are alert, observant, organized, dedicated, and responsible. All states require a licensed pharmacist to be in attendance during pharmacy hours. A growing number of physicians are partners or salaried employees of group practices. Describe the responsibilities and work of each profession. They instruct individuals and families and other groups in health education, disease prevention, nutrition, child care, and home care of the sick or handicapped. This should not be surprising, given the historical perspective of health services, the diverse subsystems in operation in the United States, and the dynamics of social and technological changes. Most career EMTs and paramedics work in metropolitan areas. This page intentionally left blank Chapter 26 }} Health Services Administration 398 HEALTH-RELATED PROFESSIONS Key Terms Programs Budgets Health services (generalist, clinical) Review Organization and coordination Executive Chief executive officer (CEO) Negotiation Leadership Financial viability Associate administrator Assistant administrator Marketing Strategic planning Governing board Policies Philosophy The Need for Professional Management Effective management of health care organizations and of the considerable resources at their disposal requires competent managers. 0 Graduates with a master’s degree in psychology qualify for positions in school and industrial-organizational psychology. Employment of physical therapist assistants and aides is expected to grow much faster than the average for all occupations through the year 2008. Consequently, students interested in enrolling in physical therapy programs must attain superior grades in high school and college, especially in science courses. The anticipated growth of hospital-based outpatient services is expected to cause hospitals to remain a major employer of physical therapists. Such hospitals may decide to leave the provision of emergency medical services to others in the community. This type of employment will grow the fastest in home health agencies, residential care facilities, and practitioners’ offices and clin- HEALTH SERVICES ADMINISTRATION 405 ics. Critical to high-quality health care is the assurance that individuals performing laboratory tests are able to carry out their responsibilities in a proficient manner. An extended curriculum to encompass these goals should be established. Success in handling these inquiries depends largely on the librarian’s skill. 278 HEALTH PROFESSIONS INVOLVING PATIENT CARE Next, the physical therapist conducts an evaluation. Introduction to Electrodynamics (4th Edition) by David J. Griffiths Introduction to Electrodynamics (4th Edition) PDF Introduction to Electrodynamics (4th Edition) by by David J. Griffiths This Introduction to Electrodynamics (4th Edition) book is not really ordinary book, you have it then the world is in your hands. During the procedures, they monitor patients’ blood pressure and heart rate using electrocardiogram (EKG) equipment and notify the physician if something appears to be wrong. Earnings According to the latest data, median annual earnings of recreational therapists were $28,650. Phone: (410) 659-9314. They also keep the team’s coach informed of the injured athlete’s condition. As discussed in Chapter 2, the general hospital cares for patients with various medical conditions requiring diagnosis and surgical/medical treatment. 180 HEALTH PROFESSIONS INVOLVING PATIENT CARE Earnings According to the latest information, median annual earnings of salaried optometrists were $82,860 in recent years. The therapist would proceed slowly, first letting the patient observe a game and then assigning a therapeutic assistant to serve as a chess partner for weeks or even months—as long as it takes for the patient to gain the confidence to seek out other patients as partners. The technician may also be involved in selecting personnel and providing on-the-job training. Activities employed by recreational therapists are as varied as the interests and abilities of the people they serve. The population will be older. Employment of occupational therapists is expected to increase faster than the average for all occupations through 2008. They work with, care for, and take direct charge of patients with various kinds of disabilities, including psychotic and emotionally disturbed adults, children, and adolescents; the acute and chronically ill; the mentally retarded; the aged; and alcoholics and drug abusers. Patients are being released earlier and more procedures are being done on an outpatient basis, both within and outside hospitals. In some cases, individuals without formal educational credentials enter this field through on-the-job training in the basic levels of animal care. Median annual earnings in the industries employing the largest numbers of medical and clinical laboratory technicians were as follows: Hospitals Colleges and universities Offices and clinics of medical doctors Medical and dental laboratories Health and allied health services, not elsewhere classified $28,860 27,810 27,180 25,250 24,370 According to the American Society for Clinical Pathology, median hourly pay of staff clinical laboratory technologists and technicians varied by specialty as follows: Specialty Cytotechnologist Histotechnologist Medical technologist Histologic technician Medical laboratory technician Phlebotomist Beginning $16.70 13.90 14.00 12.00 11.40 8.10 Average $21.30 18.00 17.90 15.30 14.00 9.90 Top $24.00 19.90 20.50 17.30 16.30 11.80 Related Occupations Clinical laboratory technologists and technicians analyze body fluids, tissues, and other substances using a variety of tests. Additional classes in mid-management and fashion merchandising. This wide scope of training makes the primary care physician very knowledgeable in treating the whole patient preventively and in coordinating specialty care if necessary. The DRG determines the amount the hospital will be reimbursed if the patient is covered by Medicare or other insurance programs that use the DRG system. dentalassisting.com. Like other business owners, these dentists must provide their own health insurance, life insurance, and retirement benefits. Health educators meet with groups and work out health education programs to include in regular daily activities. Besides, I can’t stand the sight of blood.” A health career does not automatically mean a hospital job or care of the sick. Current Population Reports. The dietetic technician supervises support staff, monitors cost-control procedures, interprets and implements quality assurance procedures, counsels individuals or small groups, screens patients/clients for nutritional status, and develops nutrition care plans. Those working in industry and government usually receive higher salaries, commensurate with their education and experience. These problems may include inadequate housing, unemployment, lack of job skills, financial distress, serious illness or disability, substance abuse, unwanted pregnancy, or antisocial behavior. Clinical social workers offer psychotherapy or counseling and a range of diagnostic services in public agencies, clinics, and private practice. Related Occupations Workers in other occupations with responsibilities and duties related to those of registered nurses include occupational therapists, paramedics, physical therapists, physician assistants, and respiratory therapists. The most common causes of disabilities in the old-old group are dementia, arthritis, peripheral vascular disease, cerebral vascular disease, and hip fracture. However, men and women interested in helping others are the foundation of a successful laboratory. As noted earlier, training is offered at progressive levels: EMTBasic, also known as EMT-1; EMT-intermediate, or EMT-2 and EMT-3; and EMT-Paramedic, or EMT-4. Medical assistants must be good at putting patients at ease, listening to them, and explaining physicians’ instructions. Epidemiological studies indicate that up to 28 percent of the elderly have significant psychiatric symptoms. According to the American Physical Therapy Association (APTA), there were 189 accredited physical therapy programs in 1999. However, opportunities should be good in rural areas, which often find it difficult to attract and retain qualified staff. Employment Opportunities Most recently, dentists held about 152,000 jobs. In addition, continuing concern about crime, juvenile delinquency, and services for the mentally ill, the mentally retarded, AIDS patients, and individuals and families in crisis will spur demand for social workers in several areas of specialization. Most jobs are in hospitals, but other health care settings are gaining in importance. A biological photographer can specialize in one of several areas. One year is dedicated to 312 HEALTH PROFESSIONS INVOLVING PATIENT CARE core courses, followed by a year of specialized instruction in either invasive, noninvasive, or noninvasive peripheral cardiology. These are generally funded privately and run by volunteers. Certain of these posts provide commissioned officer status; others come under the heading of civil service. Include memberships in school or community organizations. Some are solo practitioners who operate their own offices; others are in multispecialty group practices. $34,900–45,200/yr. • American Medical Technologists, 710 Higgins Rd., Park Ridge, IL 60068-5765. Confirming Pages Health care as it is known will not disappear, but may take a very changed form. Internet: http://www.mlanet.org. State and local health departments, pharmaceutical manufacturers, and professional associations also employ pharmacists. Qualitative Research in Nursing and Healthcare is an invaluable resource for those who carry out qualitative research in the healthcare arena. There are no unusual physical demands in this work, and therapists who are blind, are partly or almost completely paralyzed, or use prosthetic devices can be successful if they have adapted to their disabilities. Related Occupations Psychologists are trained to conduct research and teach, evaluate, counsel, and advise individuals and groups with special needs. To begin your library search, look at the computer listings under “vocations” or “careers” and then under specific fields. Many employers prefer to hire registered radiographers and sonographers. A few colleges admit students directly from high school. Approximately 60 percent of patients’ bills paid to private nursing homes are paid by the Medicaid program. In large hospitals or in commercial laboratories that operate continuously, workers are hired specifically for the day, evening, or night shift. Median hourly earnings of pharmacy technicians were $8.00 in drugstores, $8.40 in grocery stores, and $8.50 in department stores in 1997. Applicants must submit transcripts, scores from the Medical College Admission Test, and letters of recommendation. It is noteworthy, however, that of the oldest-old living in the community, at least 40 percent report no limits in their daily activities, and 60 percent of this group perceive their health to be good to excellent. While health insurance pays for treatments for acute diseases and hospitalization, the current method of financing health services emphasizes payment for individual services, which reinforces the concept of short-term, discontinuous service. The lowest 10 percent earned less than $51,570 and the highest 10 percent more than $89,010 per year. This procedure, when performed at rest and during stress, examines the heart’s ability to meet the body’s needs. The impact of unlicensed assistive personnel in nursing care delivery. Once there is a reaction, the sensation level is noted. Others are found in speech, language, and hearing centers; hospitals; nursing homes; offices of physicians; and outpatient care facilities. Career lines in this field are short. Mary Declo, R.D. Psychologists employed as faculty by colleges and universities divide their time between teaching and research and may also have administrative responsibilities. Advances in rehabilitation medicine and therapeutic techniques are likely to create additional demand. The lowest 10 percent earned less than $24,820 and the highest 10 percent earned more than $123,770 per year. About one in five dietitians works part-time. Interns receive a small salary but typically find that their internship experience leads to a higher beginning salary, relative to other starting veterinarians. Chapter 10 }} Pharmacists 146 HEALTH PROFESSIONS INVOLVING PATIENT CARE Key Terms Pharmaceuticals Compounding Medication profile Side effects Pharmacotherapists Nutrition support pharmacists Radiopharmacists/nuclear pharmacists Board examination Internship Pharmaceutical chemistry Pharmacy technicians Pharmacy assistants Pharmaceutical Partners One of the main tools of physicians treating patients is medication. City hospitals are usually controlled by municipal and county governments. Overview. They usually work a 40-hour week but may be called on to put in additional hours to meet publication deadlines. For those nurses who care for the ill and infirm, the physical demands of patient care can be strenuous. 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