It resulted in multiplying the concurrent connections to Redshift by two, and a high load on the queue dedicated to analysts, neither fitting the current WLM strategy, therefore breaking our SLAs. A few notable things about Redshift Workload Management, The principal mechanism that allows the management of resources is the definition of priorities queues for the execution of queries. Our initial recommendation is for 2 WLM queues: a queue for the segment query group with a concurrency of 10. leave the default queue with a concurrency of 5 We identified a few levers. In Redshift, when scanning a lot of data or when running in a WLM queue with a small amount of memory, some queries might need to use the disk. The automatic mode provides some tuning functionality, like setting priority levels for different queues, but Redshift tries to automate the processing characteristics for workloads as much as possible. Any queries that are not routed to other queues run in the default queue. For us, the sweet spot was under 75% of disk used. But yeah, I agree that the Redshift documentation lacks clarity on this. By default, Amazon Redshift defines two queues One Superuser queue, which is reserved only for the superuser role and it cannot be configured. If you want to setup your own dynamic WLM, then this blog will help you. Improve our schema design: From AWS docs, In each queue, WLM creates a number of query slots equal to the queue’s concurrency level. There is a solution already available on AWS’s RedShift utilities, but its not a sperate package. Usage limit for Redshift Spectrum – Redshift Spectrum usage limit. you have the option of changing the percentage of memory assigned to each queue by setting wlm memory percent parameter. Usage limit for concurrency scaling – Concurrency scaling usage limit. Design a better WLM strategy and monitor it thoroughly. Amazon Redshift WLM Queue Time and Execution Time Breakdown - Further Investigation Broken Down by Hour Posted by Tim Miller Once you have determined a day that has shown significant load on your WLM Queue, let’s break it down further to determine a time of the day. Though, it doesn't say that the default queue can't have any User or Query groups. It comes with many other things. The maximum concurrency that Redshift supports is 50 across all query groups, and resources like memory are distributed evenly across all those queries. How AWS handles this dynamic WLM? SELECT * FROM wlm_queue_state_vw; This is the default queue setup and what you would see on a stock Redshift cluster: Here is what a custom queue would look like: The custom queue is a three-queue setup that allows for a timeout (max_time) on the fastest queue and moves anything slower to a second queue. 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