By Harjot Kaur February 25, 2015 No Comments. Nader Shah Afshar (Persian: نادر شاه افشار‎; also known as Nader Qoli Beyg نادر قلی بیگ or Tahmāsp Qoli Khan تهماسپ قلی خان) (August 1688[5] – 19 June 1747) was one of the most powerful Iranian rulers in Iranian history, ruling as Shah of Iran (Persia) from 1736 to 1747 when he was assassinated during a rebellion. [31], Relations between Nader and the Shah had declined as the latter grew jealous of his general's military successes. Nader Shah transformed the Shahsevan, a nomadic group living around Azerbaijan whose name literally means "shah lover", into a tribal confederacy which defended Iran against the neighbouring Ottomans and Russians. [29] In 1738 Nader Shah besieged and destroyed the last Hotaki seat of power at Kandahar. They entered the enclosure of the royal tent, pushing and smashing their way through any obstacles, and penetrated into the sleeping quarters of that ill-starred monarch. He practically looted so much that he didn't have the need to come back to Delhi again. Bring me my weapons!’ The assassins were struck with fear by these words and wanted to escape, but ran straight into the two chiefs of the murder-conspiracy, who allayed their fears and made them go into the tent again. At its peak, under such figures as Abbas the Great, Safavid Iran had been a powerful empire, but by the early 18th century the state was in serious decline and the reigning shah, Sultan Husayn, was a weak ruler. Nadir Shah massacred 20,000 to 30,000 people in Delhi. (Nader Shah) Until His Assassination In A.D. 1747. https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Nader_Shah%27s_invasion_of_India&oldid=995608751, Articles with dead external links from February 2018, Articles with permanently dead external links, All Wikipedia articles written in Indian English, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, The Persian Empire annexes all lands west of the Indus river and establishes hegemony over the region, "Empire" as a description of foreign policy, This page was last edited on 21 December 2020, at 23:48. With lumber from Mazandaran, he built ships in Bushehr. Nader Shah has been described as "the last great Asiatic military conqueror". Nader asked for the Afghan rebels to be handed over, but the Mughal emperor refused. [8] Nader, furious at the killings, retaliated by ordering his soldiers to carry out the notorious qatl-e-aam (qatl = killing, aam = common public, in open) of Delhi. The next day, the Shah held a great durbar in the capital. He entered the city on 20 March 1739 and occupied Shah Jehan’s imperial suite in the Red Fort. Nature endowed him with all the great qualities that make heroes ... His dyed beard made a sharp contrast with his completely gray hair; his natural physique was strong, tall, and his waist was proportional to his growth; his expression was gloomy, with an oblong face, an aquiline nose and a beautiful mouth, but with his lower lip protruding forward. Nadr Qolī Beg had an obscure beginning in the Turkish Afshar tribe, which was loyal to the Ṣafavid shahs of Iran. In 1743, Nader started another war against the Ottoman Empire. This concept resembled, in broad terms, the origin myths of 15th century Anatolian Turkmen dynasties. It took Nader fourteen months to crush this uprising. This was the signal to start the onslaught and carnage. The commission was supervised by Mīrzā Moḥammad Mahdī Khan Monšī, the court historiographer and author of the Tarikh-e-Jahangoshay-e-Naderi (History of Nader Shah's Wars). Amit Shah said if farmer organisations felt that any provision of the three new farm laws was against their interests, the Modi government was ready to discuss and consider it with an open mind. Nadir Shah’s forces were no match for bands of 25-50 Sikhs who would gallop on their horses attack, save some slaves and then retreat. [6] The garrison tried to attack again, but were driven out by the Persian army. His neighbors respected him, his enemies were afraid of him, and he lacked only the love of his subjects ”. [6] When the governor of Ghazni fled upon hearing of Nader's approach, the Qadi, Scholars, and rich men of Ghazni gave the invaders presents and submitted to Nader when he entered on May 31. This chapter studies the Afghan invasion, which was led by Ahmed Shah Abdali. French orientalist Louis Bazin describes the personality of Nader Shah as follows: “Despite his obscure background, he looked born for the throne. Perhaps it was his illness that made Nader lose the initiative in his war against the Lezgin tribes of Daghestan. Even though the Emperor agreed, he practically took no action. In private conversations, no one is allowed to talk about government affairs.[72]. With the wealth he gained, Nader started to build an Iranian navy. local comedians in sikh dress) - Duration: ... Lost Treasure Of Nadir Shah That Was Lost Near Hindu Kush - Duration: 10:56. Muhammad Shah surrendered and both entered Delhi together. The end of his reign marked the start of British East India Company rule over Bengal and later almost all of South Asia . Legend has it that in 1704, when he was about 17, a band of marauding Uzbeks invaded the province of Khorasan, where Nader lived with his mother. "[4], Muhammad Shah was forced to beg for mercy. Nader Shah was well known to the European public of the time. [34] This was the only time that he was ever defeated in battle. [75] Joseph Stalin used to read about Nader Shah and admired him, calling him, along with Ivan the Terrible, a teacher. In 1747, Nader set off for Khorasan, where he intended to punish Kurdish rebels. The decaying Mughal empire and its governors tried desperately to prolong their rule but lost it all due to the onslaught of the Persians, Afghans, Marathas and the Sikhs. Nader settled down in Kabul to handle the province's affairs. What is a son? When Sultan Husayn attempted to quell a rebellion by the Ghilzai Afghans in Kandahar, the governor he sent (Gurgin Khan) was killed. The Ottoman Sultan Mahmud I initiated the Ottoman-Persian War (1743-1746), in which Muhammad Shah closely cooperated with the Ottomans until his death in 1748. [57], Nader changed the Iranian coinage system. [67] Nader's Indian campaign alerted the British East India Company to the extreme weakness of the Mughal Empire and the possibility of expanding to fill the power vacuum. “Tell him,” Nader replied, “that Nasrullah is the son of Nader Shah, the son and grandson of the sword, and so on, not until the 7th, but until the 70th generation.”. In March 1735, he signed a treaty with the Russians in Ganja by which the latter agreed to withdraw all of their troops from Iranian territory,[35][36] those which had not been ceded back by the 1732 Treaty of Resht yet, resulting in the reestablishment of Iranian rule over all of the Caucasus and northern mainland Iran again. In 1738, Nader Shah conquered Kandahar, the last outpost of the Hotaki dynasty in Afghanistan, he then began to launch raids across the Hindu Kush mountains into Northern India, which, at that time, was under the rule of the Mughal Empire. On 4/29/2019 at 3:07 PM, dalsingh101 said: He is governor of Panjab and appears to have subjugated himself to Nadir Shah hence the escort through his territory, and we have Singhs sabotaging Nadir's retreat and looting the loot. The new shah of the Ghilzai Afghans, Ashraf, decided to move against Nader but in September 1729, Nader defeated him at the Battle of Damghan and again decisively in November at Murchakhort. Gateway to Sikhism. He is extremely generous, especially to his warriors, and generously rewards all who have distinguished themselves in his service. The regions to the west of that, mainly Iranian territories in Georgia, Iranian Azerbaijan, and Armenia, were taken by the Ottomans. In the subsequent peace negotiations, the Ottomans refused to acknowledge Ja'farism as a fifth mazhab but they did allow Iranian pilgrims to go on the hajj. Nader now decided to punish Daghestan for the death of his brother Ebrahim Qoli on a campaign a few years earlier. The most detailed account of Nader's assassination comes from Père Louis Bazin, Nader's physician at the time of his death, who relied on the eyewitness testimony of Chuki, one of Nader's favourite concubines: Around fifteen of the conspirators were impatient or merely eager to distinguish themselves, and so turned up prematurely at the agreed meeting place. At its peak, under such figures as Abbas the Great, Safavid Iran had been a powerful empire, but by the early 18th century the state was in serious decline and the reigning shah, Sultan Husayn, was a weak ruler. Having heard rumours that his father had died, he had made preparations for assuming the crown. [38] In the same month of January 1736, Nader held a qoroltai (a grand meeting in the tradition of Genghis Khan and Timur) on the Moghan plains. [13], Nader's Indian campaign also alerted the British East India Company to the extreme weakness of the Mughal Empire and the possibility of expanding British imperial designs to fill the power vacuum. The city administrator attempted to fix prices at a lower level and Afsharid troops were sent to the market at Paharganj, Delhi to enforce them. Many years later, when he was returning in triumph from his conquest of Delhi, he led the army to his birthplace and made a speech to his generals about his early life of deprivation. Nadir Shah`s progress towards Delhi and general massacre in Delhi, and his return to Iran are described in detail. Without Nader, "eventual British [in India] would have come later and in a different form, perhaps never at all - with important global effects".[68]. Many of the Abdali Afghans subsequently joined his army. Ahmad Shah was one of the famous Afghan generals of the Persian Afsarid Emperor Nadir Shah. The Afsharid occupation led to price increases in the city. At the same time, the Abdali Afghans rebelled and besieged Mashhad, forcing Nader to suspend his campaign and save his brother, Ebrahim. He then, to the accompaniment of the rolling of drums and the blaring of trumpets, unsheathed his great battle sword in a grand flourish to the great and loud acclaim and wild cheers of the Afsharid troops present. [18], Nader became increasingly cruel as a result of his illness and his desire to extort more and more tax money to pay for his military campaigns. [39] Everyone agreed to the proposal of Nader becoming the new king, many—if not most—enthusiastically, the rest fearing Nader's anger if they showed support for the deposed Safavids. His numerous campaigns created a great empire that, at its greatest extent, briefly encompassed what is now part of or includes Iran, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, the North Caucasus, Iraq, Turkey, Turkmenistan, Afghanistan, Uzbekistan, Bahrain, Pakistan, Oman and the Persian Gulf, but his military spending had a ruinous effect on the Iranian economy. p. 19 FK Publications. This was a hat with four peaks which symbolised the first four caliphs. He may have perceived a need to unite disparate components of the ummah against the expanding power of Europe at that time, however his view of Muslim unity was different from later concepts of it. The Mughal ruler, Muhammad Shah, proved unable to stop the disintegration of the empire. The strong character of Nader Shah is indicated by the fact that having achieved much fame and glory, he did not allow his pleasers to find great ancestors in the darkness of his origin. Nader reunited the Iranian realm and removed the invaders. [8], The city was sacked for several days. Nadir Shah was probably the last great Asian military conqueror. [53] Many historians believe that Nader attacked the Mughal Empire to, perhaps, give his country some breathing space after previous turmoils. Under their leader Mahmud Hotaki, the rebellious Afghans moved westwards a… Encyclopedia of Soviet law By Ferdinand Joseph Maria Feldbrugge, Gerard Pieter van den Berg, William B. Simons, Page 457, L. Lockhart, «Nadir Shah : A Critical Study Based Mainly Upon Contemporary Sources», W. Dalrymple, A. Anand, «Koh-i-Noor: The History of the World’s Most Infamous Diamond», p. 48, R. B. Kaul, «Ballad on Nadir Shah's Invasion in India», p. 3-4, W. Dalrymple, A. Anand, «Koh-i-Noor: The History of the World’s Most Infamous Diamond», E. Tucker, «Nadir Shah’s Quest for Legitimacy in Post-Safavid Iran», p. 6, R. B. Kaul, «Ballad on Nadir Shah's Invasion in India», p. 16, Rudi Matthee, «Nādir Shāh in Iranian Historiography: Warlord or National Hero?», Restoration of Tahmasp II to the Safavid throne, Safavid conversion of Iran from Sunnism to Shiism, The Sword of Persia: Nader Shah, from Tribal Warrior to Conquering Tyrant, Modern Conflict in the Greater Middle East: A Country-by-Country Guide, "An Outline of the History of Persia During the Last Two Centuries (A.D. 1722-1922)", Svat Soucek, a history of inner asia page 195: in 1740 Nader Shah, the new ruler of Iran, crossed the Amu Darya and, accepting the submission of Muhammad Hakim Bi which was then formalized by the acquiescence of Abulfayz Khan himself, proceeded to attack Khiva. Nader belonged to the Turkoman[15] Afshar tribe, a semi-nomadic tribe settled in Khorasan in northeastern Iran,[16] which had supplied military power to the Safavid dynasty since the time of Shah Ismail I. 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